Journal articles: '"Karol I Stuart"' – Grafiati (2024)

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Relevant bibliographies by topics / "Karol I Stuart" / Journal articles

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Author: Grafiati

Published: 24 April 2022

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1

Halton, Eugene. "Sociology’s missed opportunity: John Stuart-Glennie’s lost theory of the moral revolution, also known as the axial age." Journal of Classical Sociology 17, no.3 (February13, 2017): 191–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1468795x17691434.

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In 1873, 75 years before Karl Jaspers published his theory of the Axial Age in 1949, unknown to Jaspers and to contemporary scholars today, Scottish folklorist John Stuart Stuart-Glennie elaborated the first fully developed and nuanced theory of what he termed “the Moral Revolution” to characterize the historical shift emerging roughly around 600 BCE in a variety of civilizations, most notably ancient China, India, Judaism, and Greece, as part of a broader critical philosophy of history. He continued to write on the idea over decades in books and articles and also presented his ideas to the fledgling Sociological Society of London in 1905, which were published the following year in the volume Sociological Papers, Volume 2. This article discusses Stuart-Glennie’s ideas on the moral revolution in the context of his philosophy of history, including what he termed “panzooinism”; ideas with implications for contemporary debates in theory, comparative history, and sociology of religion. It shows why he should be acknowledged as the originator of the theory now known as the axial age, and also now be included as a significant sociologist in the movement toward the establishment of sociology.

2

Evans,M. "John Stuart Mill and Karl Marx: Some Problems and Perspectives." History of Political Economy 21, no.2 (January1, 1989): 273–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/00182702-21-2-273.

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Chaikind, Stephen. "The Role of Viticulture and Enology in the Development of Economic Thought: How Wine Contributed to Modern Economic Theory." Journal of Wine Economics 7, no.2 (September10, 2012): 213–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jwe.2012.17.

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AbstractThis paper introduces the role wine has played as a central factor in the history of economic thought. The focus is on an examination of documented sources that connect wine and its viticulture and enology with the evolution of economic concepts. Works by Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill, Léon Walras, Alfred Marshall, and others are examined, as well as wine economic ideas postulated by Greek and Roman thinkers. (JEL Classification: A1, B1, B3, N00)

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Muñoz Cardona, Ángel Emilio. "Socialismo o comunismo diferencias entre John Stuart Mill y Karl Marx." Inciso 17, no.2 (December1, 2015): 93. http://dx.doi.org/10.18634/incj.17v.2i.399.

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<p>Actualmente los conceptos de socialismo y de comunismo se manejan como sinónimos, cosa que no debería ser. Karl Marx entendía el paso del capitalismo al socialismo y del socialismo al comunismo como producto del devenir histórico, es decir, como el resultado del desarrollo de las fuerzas productivas dentro de la sociedad que van alterando poco a poco las relaciones sociales de producción. Pensamiento que en gran medida puede concordar con el planteamiento de John Stuart Mill como resultado de diálogos y de consensos políticos democráticos y parlamentarios fruto de la educación generalizada en los sentimientos de simpatía social o de la conciencia civil. Pero los marxistas quisieron llegar al comunismo por medio de la violencia, es decir, de la revolución de los hombres masa, por lo que afirma: “La emancipación de la clase obrera debe ser obra de la clase obrera misma” (Marx y Engels, 1975:13). Proceso que ha significado la implantación de la dictadura del proletariado, del fanatismo ideológico; no fruto del consenso político o de la transformación social como producto de la historia del desarrollo de los medios de producción. Dar claridad a la diferencia histórica de dichos planteamientos teóricos e ideológicos a partir de la filosofía milleana es la tarea a desarrollar en el presente artículo</p><p> </p>

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Pereira de Mello, Marcelo. "Direitos humanos ou como reconstruir seu conceito cotididianamente." Confluências | Revista Interdisciplinar de Sociologia e Direito 5, no.1 (July28, 2006): 63. http://dx.doi.org/10.22409/conflu5i1.p20092.

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Este artigo procura refletir sobre os diferentes significados assumidos pela expressão Direitos Humanos desde a sua formulação histórica nos movimentos revolucionários burgueses, nos séculos XVII e XVIII passando pela incorporação dos direitos dos negros e das mulheres nos séculos subseqüentes. No plano teórico mostra a trajetória da expressão desde a sua formulação pelos filósofos liberais clássicos dentre os quais destacamos Thomas Hobbes, John Locke e John Stuart Mill e a progressiva ampliação de seus significados em consonância com a dinâmica dos valores e das relações sociais. Para tanto se inspira na concepção de Karl Marx sobre a democracia como eterna luta pela democracia para demonstrar a necessidade da constante renovação do conceito de Direitos Humanos.

6

Jose, Jim. "No More Like Pallas Athena: Displacing Patrilineal Accounts of Modern Feminist Political Theory." Hypatia 19, no.4 (2004): 1–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1527-2001.2004.tb00146.x.

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The history of modern feminist political theories is often framed in terms of the already existing theories of a number of radical nineteenth-century men philosophers such as James Mill, John Stuart Mill, Charles Fourier, Karl Marx, and Friedrich Engels. My argument takes issue with this way of framing feminist political theory by demonstrating that it rests on a derivation that remains squarely within the logic of malestream political theory. Each of these philosophers made use of a particular discursive trope that linked the idea of women's emancipation with the idea of social progress. I argue that this trope reproduced the masculinist signification and symbolism inherent in their particular political philosophies. I argue for a more positive, less masculinist, account of the history of feminist political thought.

7

Vaubel, Roland. "Zur Begründung der Freiheit." ORDO 2019, no.70 (March16, 2019): 372–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ordo-2020-0020.

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ZusammenfassungBei der Rechtfertigung der Freiheit geht es um die Optimierung des Wissens und der Anreize. Freiheit dient der optimalen Nutzung des vorhandenen Wissens und der optimalen Produktion neuen Wissens, und sie gibt dem handelnden Individuum die bestmöglichen Anreize. Der Verfasser analysiert die Geschichte dieser Rechtfertigungen. Informationsökonomische Begründungen verdanken wir Adam Smith, Jeremy Bentham, Wilhelm von Humboldt, John Stuart Mill, Friedrich von Hayek und Karl Popper. Anreiztheoretische Begründungen finden sich bei Thomas von Aquin, Adam Smith und James Mill. Der Verfasser wendet sich gegen den Versuch, die Freiheit oder das Recht auf Eigentum evolutionstheoretisch mit der natürlichen Auslese zu rechtfertigen. Schließlich geht er der Frage nach, inwieweit das klassische Freiheitsziel mit anderen Zielen – dem Effizienzziel, der staatlichen Durchsetzung von Verträgen, der individuellen Wahlfreiheit, der politischen Partizipation und dem sozialistischen Freiheitsbegriff – vereinbar ist.

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Burkhart,JohnE. "Humanity in the Thought of Karl Barth. Stuart D. McLeanThe Spirit as Lord: The Pneumatology of Karl Barth. Philip J. Rosato." Journal of Religion 65, no.2 (April 1985): 291–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/487244.

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9

Nortowska, Paulina. "Ostatnie miesiące życia, proces i ścięcie Karola I Stuarta w opinii prasy angielskiej." Studia Historyczne 60, no.3 (239) (December29, 2018): 25–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.12797/sh.60.2017.03.02.

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The Last Months , Trial and Execution of Charles I in the Opinion of the English Press The aim of this article is to compare different points of view on phenomenon of the trial, conviction and execution of the English (and Scottish) monarch, Charles I. The newsbooks A Perfect diurnall of the passages in Parliament (paper published by Parliament) and Mercurius Pragmaticus, Communicating intelligence from all parts, touching all affaires, designes, humours, and conditions, throughout the kingdome, especially from Westminster and the head‑quartes (newspaper of supporters of King Charles I of England) were analysed and compared. The comparison was made for the years 1647–1649 with a focus on the Second English Civil War. In the case of A Perfect diurnall, the articles published between 3.06.1647 and 7.02.1649 — from the extradition of King Charles I of England to Commissioners to the King’s funeral. The other newsbook, Mercurius Pragmaticus, was published from 14.09.1947 to 1.05.1649. The main focus of this analysis is to show the differences between the two publications in their presentation of the imprisonment, trial and execution of King Charles I.

10

Micheleto, Leonardo David. "A Construção do Paraná "Europeu"." Revista NEP - Núcleo de Estudos Paranaenses da UFPR 3, no.1 (September6, 2017): 64. http://dx.doi.org/10.5380/nep.v3i1.52558.

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Esse trabalho consiste no estudo da construção do pensamento de que o Paraná é um estado “europeu”, pensamento este que muitas vezes se passa como realidade para parte da população paranaense, título até ostentado com orgulho para alguns. Mas como é construída essa realidade? Quem a constrói? Em busca dessas respostas, fomos atrás dos autores consagrados, literatos intelectuais por detrás dessa ideia. Os dois principais analisados são Nestor Vítor e Wilson Martins. Pesquisamos suas biografias e suas famílias, de modo a desvelar a que grupo social pertencem, para relacionarmos com o estilo de pensamento que perpretam, usando a metodologia de Ricardo Costa de Oliveira e de Karl Manheimm. Utilizamos o estudo de Stuart Hall para pensarmos como a construção de “comunidades imaginadas” e a “invenção das tradições” atuam na cultura não somente no nível nacional, mas também no regional, gerando uma nova relação com o “Outro” nessa tentativa de diferenciação.

11

Qizilbash, Mozaffar. "Capability, objectivity and “false consciousness”: on Sen, Marx and J.S. Mill." International Journal of Social Economics 43, no.12 (December5, 2016): 1207–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ijse-04-2016-0127.

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Purpose The extent to which Amartya Sen’s capability approach is prefigured in Karl Marx’s views comes into sharper focus when one notes that Marx and Friedrich Engels explicitly argued that the transformation from capitalism to communism would involve the development of “a totality of capacities”. Sen also cites the notion of “false consciousness” in developing his view of objectivity and claims a Marxian pedigree for the notion of “objective illusion”. He suggests that public discussion can make evaluative judgements better informed and less parochial, so that they connect more closely with what people have reason to value. The author argues that this line of argument is also closely related to views John Stuart Mill advanced in his discussion of the “competent judges” and in his defence of liberty of thought and discussion. Design/methodology/approach The approach used is conceptual analysis and discussion of historical texts. Findings The chief findings are that Amartya Sen’s works on capability and objectivity have deeper affinities with some of Karl Marx’s and Friedrich Engels’ views than has been hitherto appreciated by scholars. However, some of the claims which Sen makes about objectivity and false consciousness are prefigured in the writings of J.S. Mill. Originality/value Because some of these affinities between the works of Sen, Marx and Mill have not previously been recognised, the paper’s elucidation of them is a new contribution to the literature.

12

Bufacchi, Vittorio. "Justice as Non-maleficence." Theoria 67, no.162 (March1, 2020): 1–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.3167/th.2020.6716201.

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The principle of non-maleficence, primum non nocere, has deep roots in the history of moral philosophy, being endorsed by John Stuart Mill, W. D. Ross, H. L. A. Hart, Karl Popper and Bernard Gert. And yet, this principle is virtually absent from current debates on social justice. This article suggests that non-maleficence is more than a moral principle; it is also a principle of social justice. Part I looks at the origins of non-maleficence as a principle of ethics, and medical ethics in particular. Part II introduces the idea of non-maleficence as a principle of social justice. Parts III and IV define the principle of justice as non-maleficence in terms of its scope and coherence, while Part V argues that the motivation of not doing harm makes this principle an alternative to two well-established paradigms in the literature on social justice: justice as mutual advantage (David Gauthier) and justice as impartiality (Brian Barry).

13

Ragazzoni, David. "Democrazia in catene: civilizzazione, schiavismo e guerra negli scritti sull'america di John Stuart Mill e Karl Marx." RIVISTA DI STORIA DELLA FILOSOFIA, no.3 (September 2014): 475–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.3280/sf2014-003004.

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14

Valenzuela Garcés, Jorge. "La ficción y la libertad. Una aproximación a la dimensión política de la poética vargasllosiana sobre la ficción." Anales de Literatura Hispanoamericana 47 (December11, 2018): 237–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.5209/alhi.62738.

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En este artículo nos proponemos estudiar la dimensión política de la concepción vargasllosiana sobre la ficción. Para tal efecto, relacionaremos esta concepción, de raíz antropológica, con las bases ideológicas del liberalismo que se visibilizan en las reflexiones del autor al momento de postular un conjunto de ideas en torno al papel que cumplen las ficciones en la sociedad y las relaciones que establecen con la libertad individual. En este estudio analizamos, fundamentalmente, el texto “El poder de la ficción” publicado por el autor en 1987 y el texto “El viaje a la ficción” que constituye el prefacio al estudio que realiza el autor sobre la obra de Juan Carlos Onetti. Empleamos, para el análisis, el marco general de la teoría de la ficción en la perspectiva antropológica, desarrollada por Wolfgang Iser, las ideas centrales del liberalismo político postuladas por Stuart Mill en su libro Sobre la libertad y los conceptos de sociedad abierta y sociedad cerrada desarrollados por Karl Popper en su libro La sociedad abierta y sus enemigos.

15

LABANIA. "THE MOUSEDEER: THE SIMBOL OF LOWER CLASS’ RESISTANCE AGAINTS THE RULING GROUP." MOZAIK HUMANIORA 19, no.2 (January6, 2020): 172. http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/mozaik.v19i2.12488.

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This studi aims to reveal the constructed values in the story of the mousedeer through a social class approach. This study analyzes three types of the mousedeer stories considered to contain any social symbols that could lead to the representation of certain social groups. This study is based on Stuart Hall’s theory of Representation and Karl Marx’s theory of Social Class. The result of the analysis shows that the mousedeer stories contain the representation of class structures as there occured in people’s social relations. The stories contain conflict between social classes or class struggle caused by inequality in the ownership of power, where there are the opposing parties acting as the owner of this power and the mousedeer as the representation of parties without power. Here, the mousedeer who always be able to get away by tricking his strong opponents is a symbol of resistance against them, the onces who owns the power, the authority. These mousedeer stories also has a potential to indicate the psychological turmoil or expression of the lower society who tries to oppose the ruling repression in their era.

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Urs Sommer, Andreas. "¿El Estado como Dios o como monstruo? El «Zaratustra» de Nietzsche, presupuestos, entorno, consecuencias." Enrahonar. An international journal of theoretical and practical reason 68 (April4, 2022): 241–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.5565/rev/enrahonar.1388.

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Nietzsche no perdió la ocasión de menospreciar a Mill como el típico inglés de mentalidad pasiva, en cambio los intérpretes actuales de Nietzsche son cautelosos en este aspecto, pues el filósofo alemán leyó muy minuciosamente a Mill, en particular su obra Sobre la libertad. Cuando él propicia que Zaratustra hable acerca de «el más frío de todos los monstruos fríos», lo hace con una promesa de futuro: «Allí, donde el Estado acaba, ahí comienza el ser humano que no es superfluo […]. Allí, donde el Estado acaba, — ¡miradme de este modo hacia allá hermanos míos! ¿No los veis, al arcoíris y los puentes del suprahumano?». El presente trabajo establece una comparativa entre la visión de Dios y del Estado en la época moderna y la reflexión que hace Friedrich Nietzsche en Así habló Zaratustra acerca del Estado como algo monstruoso (Ungeheuer). Para este propósito se utilizarán respectivamente pasajes de la obra de Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Arthur Schonpenhauer, Friedrich Leopold Stolberg, Karl Marx, Max Sterner, Wilhelm von Humboldt y John Stuart Mill.

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Mauro, Jason. "The Shape of Despair: Structure and Vision in Keats's "Ode on a Grecian Urn"." Nineteenth-Century Literature 52, no.3 (December1, 1997): 289–301. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2933996.

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According to Karl Kroeber and Stuart M. Sperry, Keats languished in the gap between the "audience" he had achieved as a poet and the "community" he longed for. This, claims Kroeber, is the fate of all Western artists, who are doomed merely to report "dream material" to an audience of witnesses rather than to transfer a "vision" to a community that can enact it and derive social cohesion and "energy" from it. As I examine the structural underpinnings of Keats's ode, however, I find that it both enables and provides a location for a ritual transformation of the reader as an active participant. As readers of the ode, we are escorted through a rite of passage that has the shape of what anthropologist Victor Turner has called a "liminal" transition. According to Turner such "liminal" transitions, passages in which individuals suffer both disintegration and reintegration, are the means by which people are synthesized into a community. The "Ode on a Grecian Urn," then, stands apart from Kroeber's lament that western art can only serve to draw "energy" from an audience. The ode transfers visionary energy to a community of readers.

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De Sousa, Sávia Lorena Barreto Carvalho. "Liberdade, liberalismo e intervenção do estado: perspectivas teóricas de autores modernos." Revista Opinião Filosófica 8, no.2 (January24, 2018): 361–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.36592/opiniaofilosofica.v8i2.810.

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Este ensaio teórico de base analítica visa entender criticamente aspectos do liberalismo e da intervenção do Estado. Com o objetivo central de resgatar questões trabalhadas por autores modernos da Ciência Política a respeito das formas que uma sociedade pode ser mais justa e combater as desigualdades no mundo, o questionamento principal se desdobra em reflexões sobre como conciliar a liberdade com a atuação dos mercados e a respeito dos limites da democracia neste contexto, discutidos em uma problematização de pensadores como Adam Smith, Alex de Tocqueville, Stuart Mill, Max Weber e Karl Marx em diálogo com teóricos mais contemporâneos, como Friedrich Hayek, John Rawls, Jürgen Habermas e Anthony Giddens. Conclui-se a urgência de um processo de fortalecimento dos Parlamentos, com políticas públicas de inclusão social que permitam uma sociedade mais igualitária e uma educação que abra portas para formar um cidadão crítico, que compreenda as diferenças dentro do campo do respeito ao Outro e às liberdades de escolha. A proposta de contínuo aprimoramento das instituições e juízos através de sistemas de consultas, reformas e revisões jurídicas e políticas, é cada vez mais necessária em um mundo de constantes mudanças.

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Newman,JoshuaI., and KyleS.Bunds. "Special Issue Foreword: On the Political Economy of Amateur Athletics." Journal of Amateur Sport 2, no.1 (February29, 2016): 1. http://dx.doi.org/10.17161/jas.v2i1.5696.

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In its most artless definition, political economy refers to the study of inter- and intrastate transaction—concerned in large part with the dialectics of state governance and the production/consumption functions therein. Many of us, with varying degrees of deliberation, have read the works of forerunning political economists such as Adam Smith (c. 1723-1790), David Ricardo (c. 1772-1823), Thomas Malthus (c. 1766-1834), John Stuart Mill (c. 1806-1873), Karl Marx (c. 1818-1883), and Thorstein Veblen (c. 1857-1929). These classic political economists and their contemporaries shared a concern for the extent to which land, labor, income, capital, and the population derived value from, and maintained contingency with, state polity. While each diverged from the others in how to best organize the State in relation to markets and exchange activities (and vice versa) so as to optimize the citizenry’s well-being, these scholars and their contemporaries laid the foundations for the long-standing field of inquiry fixed on exploring how various national political systems (democracy, monarchy, aristocracy, oligarchy, etc.), markets, and political and economic behavior could bring about national prosperity, maximize individual freedom, or raise collective utility.

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Rice,PrudenceM. "The memory of bones: body, being, and experience among the Classic Maya - By Stephen Houston, David Stuart & Karl Taube." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 14, no.4 (December 2008): 896–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9655.2008.00537_7.x.

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Szumlewicz, Katarzyna. "Emancypacja przez wychowanie: od oświecenia do pragmatyzmu." Ars Educandi, no.9 (December8, 2012): 81–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.26881/ae.2012.09.05.

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Jak scharakteryzować termin "emancypacja poprzez edukację"? Emancypacja jest to proces, który prowadzi do równości społecznej, wolności politycznej i realnej możliwości jednostki na postęp. Egalitarna edukacja oznacza, że wiedza jest dostępna dla każdego - niezależnie od jego klasy społecznej, płci, rasy i narodowości. To nauczanie ludzi z uciskanych lub dyskryminowanych grup, by walczyć z niesprawiedliwością i nauczanie ich aby bronić swoich już osiągniętych praw. Idea emancypacji poprzez edukację rozumiana w taki sposób wyłoniła się w okresie Oświecenia, który obejmował czasy przed, w trakcie i tuż po rewolucji francuskiej. Wtedy ten pomysł ewoluował przez całą nowoczesną erę, która kończy się na początku II wojny światowej. W moim eseju "Emancypacja poprzez edukację: od Oświecenia po Pragmatyzm" studiuję emancypacyjne wątki obecne w filozoficznych teoriach takich myślicieli, jak Jean Jacques Rousseau, Jean Antoine Condorcet, Mary Wollstonecraft, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Schiller, John Stuart Mill, Harriet Taylor Mill, Karl Marx, Fryderyk Engels, Antonio Gramsci i John Dewey. Podczas przeprowadzania moich badań odkryłam, że niektórzy z nowoczesnych myślicieli reprezentowali pozycję emancypacyjną tylko w części swoich pomysłów, podczas gdy w drugiej części ich myśli pozostały konserwatywne. Na przykład Rousseau - jeden z ojców emancypacyjnej pedagogiki - był przeciwny udziałowi kobiet w przestrzeni publicznej. Innym przykładem jest użycie siły piękna i radości, aby poddać "impulsywne" masy kontroli "racjonalnych" elit w wizji Schillera dotyczącej pedagogiki estetycznej. Analizuję te "zaniechania" za pomocą krytycznych dyskursów ja ta Carole Pateman czy Terry'ego Eagletona.

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Rodríguez Herrera, Adolfo. "Adam Smith’s concept of labour: value or measure?" Revista de Ciencias Económicas 34, no.2 (December8, 2016): 152–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.15517/rce.v34i2.27195.

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Smith is considered the father of the labour theory of value developed by David Ricardo and Karl Marx and simultaneously of the cost-of-production theory of value developed by John Stuart Mill and Alfred Marshall. This polysemy is partly because Smith is developping the terminology to refer to value and measure of value, and often uses it with much imprecision. That has led to different interpretations about his position on these issues, most of them derived from an error of interpretation of Ricardo and Marx. This paper reviews the concepts developed by Smith to formulate his theory of value (value, real price and exchangeable value). Our interpretation of his texts on value does not coincide with what has traditionally been done. According to our interpretation, it would not be correct the criticism made by Ricardo and Marx on Smith’s position about the role of labour as measure of value. For these authors, Smith is not consistent in proposing that the value of a commodity is defined or measured as the amount of labour necessary to produce it and simultaneously as the amount of labour that can be purchased by this commodity. We try to show that for Smith the labour has a double role –as source and measure of value–, and that to it is due the confusion that generates his use of some terms: Smith proposes labour as a measure of value because he conceives it as a source of value. With this interpretation it becomes clear, paradoxically, that Smith holds a labour theory of value that substantially corresponds to the one later developed by Ricardo and Marx.

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Silva, Josué Cândido da. "A controvérsia entre Habermas e Albert sobre a intransitividade das ciências humanas." Especiaria: Cadernos de Ciências Humanas 18, no.32 (September26, 2018): 175–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.36113/especiaria.v18i32.2246.

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A questão da intransitividade das ciências humanas remonta à controvérsia entre compreender (Verstehen) e elucidar (Erklären), que tem origem na reação de Dilthey à pretensão de Stuart Mill de integrar as “ciências morais” dentro de um projeto de ciência unificada. Tal controvérsia adentrou o século XX, tendo, entre seus episódios, o debate sobre a lógica das ciências sociais em que se confrontaram as teses de Karl Popper e Theodor Adorno e seus discípulos, respectivamente, Hans Albert e Jürgen Habermas. No presente artigo, apresentaremos os principais elementos da controvérsia entre Habermas e Albert sobre a epistemologia das ciências humanas. Coerente com a tradição hermenêutica, Habermas postula que os critérios de objetividade das ciências naturais não se aplicam às ciências humanas, já que o pesquisador não pode assumir uma postura neutra e anular sua vivência individual no processo de investigação, pois a mesma é a condição de possibilidade do estudo da história e da sociedade, ao prover ao pesquisador uma conexão entre a experiência individual e coletiva. Para Habermas, portanto, os critérios de objetividade nas ciências humanas e nas ciências naturais não podem ser reduzidos a um mesmo padrão de cientificidade. Albert, por seu turno, postula que a realidade a que se refere nosso conhecimento é um todo conexo, sendo as fronteiras que separam as diferentes disciplinas resultado apenas de uma divisão científica do trabalho. Além disso, tanto cientistas sociais quanto naturais têm valores, mas que a ciência tem sua neutralidade axiológica garantida por seus procedimentos metodológicos. Albert vê o corte epistemológico operado por Habermas como resultado de seu dualismo metafísico entre mundo da vida, como esfera inacessível da subjetividade, e mundo objetivo. A polêmica entre Habermas e Albert permite reconstruir um importante debate que marca a história da filosofia contemporânea e que permanece aberto até hoje.

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Tiesler, Vera. "The Memory of Bones: Body, Being, and Experience among the Classic Maya. Stephen Houston , David Stuart, and Karl Taube. University of Texas Press, Austin 2006. viii + 324 pp, 265 illustrations. $36.85." Latin American Antiquity 20, no.2 (June 2009): 387–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s1045663500002716.

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Hammond, Norman. "Stephen Houston, David Stuart & Karl Taube. The Memory of Bones: Body, Being, and experience among the Classic Maya. viii+324 pages, 265 illustrations. Austin (TX): University of Texas Press; 0-292-71294-4 hardback £35." Antiquity 81, no.312 (June1, 2007): 492–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0003598x00095521.

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Barnard,TimothyP., Raja Ali Haji, Robert Blust, L.Smits, Peter Boomgaard, MasonC.Hoadley, Freek Colombijn, et al. "Book Reviews." Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde / Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences of Southeast Asia 152, no.1 (1996): 152–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/22134379-90003024.

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- Timothy P. Barnard, Raja Ali Haji, Di dalam berkekalan persahabatan: ‘In everlasting friendship’; Letters from Raja Ali Haji, edited by Jan van der Putten and Al Azhar. Semaian 13. Leiden: Department of Languages and Cultures of Southeast Asia and Oceania, 1995, 292 + x pp., maps. - Robert Blust, L. Smits, Irian Jaya source materials, no. 5, series B-no. 2. The J.C. Anceaux collection of wordlists of Irian Jaya Languages. A: Austronesian languages (part II). Leiden/Jakarta, 1992, 288 pp., C.L. Voorhoeve (eds.) - Peter Boomgaard, Mason C. Hoadley, Towards a feudal mode of production; West Java, 1680-1800. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies [ in cooperation with the Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, Copenhagen], 1994, x + 241 pp. - Freek Colombijn, Muriel Charras, Spontaneous settlements in Indonesia; Agricultural pioneers in southern Sumatra. Migrations spontanées en Indonésie; La colonisation agricole de sud de Sumatra. Jakarta: Departemen Transmigrasi; Paris: ORSTOM-CNRS, 1993, 405 pp., Marc Pain (eds.) - Dick Douwes, Hussin Mutalib, Islam, Muslims and the modern state; Case-studies of Muslims in thirteen countries. London: MacMillan; New York: St. Martin Press, 1994, 374 pp., Taj ul-Islam Hashimi (eds.) - J. van Goor, H.W. van den Doel, De stille macht; Het Europse binnenlands bestuur op Java en Madoera, 1808-1942. Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1994, 578 pp. - Stuart Kirsch, J.W. Schoorl, Culture and change among the Muyu. Translated by G.J. van Exel. Translation Series 23. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1993, xiv + 322 pp. - Bernd Nothofer, Ger P. Resink, Topics in descriptive Papuan linguistics. Leiden: Vakgroep Talen en Culturen van Zuidoost-Azië en Oceanië, Rijksuniversiteit te Leiden, 1994, viii + 154 pp. - Gerard Persoon, Robin Broad, Plundering paradise; The struggle for the environment in the Philippines. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993, xvi + 197 pp., John Cavanagh (eds.) - Gerard Persoon, Thomas N. Headland, The Tasaday controversy; Assessing the evidence. AAA 28 Special Publication. Washington: American Anthropological Association, 1992, xi + 255 pp. - Remco Raben, Peter Harmen van der Brug, Malaria en malaise; De VOC in Batavia in de achttiende eeuw. Amsterdam: De Bataafsche Leeuw, 1994, 256 pp. - Nico G. Schulte Nordholt, Marcel Bonneff, ‘L’Indonésie contemporaine; vue par ses intellectuels’. Un choix d’articles de la revue PRISMA (1971-1991). Cahier d’Archipel 21. L’Harmattan, 1994, 287 pp. - A. Teeuw, Henri Chambert-Loir, Littérature indonésienne, une introduction. Éditeur Henri Chambert-Loir. Cahier d’Archipel 22. Paris: Association Archipel, 1994, 237 pp. - A. Teeuw, Martina Heinschke, Angkatan 45. Literaturkonzeptionen im gesellschaftspolitischen Kontext; Zur Funktionsbestimmung von Literatur im postkolonialen Indonesien. Veröffentlichungen des Seminars für Indonesische und Südseesprachen der Universität Hamburg, Band 18. Berlin/Hamburg: Dietrich Reimer Verlag, 1993, viii + 365 pp., - Wim van Zanten, Philip Yampolsky, Music of Indonesia, Volumes 1-6. Series of CDs/cassette tapes with documentation. Washington: Smithsonian/Folkways Recordings. Vol. 1: ‘Songs before dawn: Gandrung Banyuwangi’ (1991; SF40055); Vol. 2: ‘Indonesian popular music: Kroncong, Dangdut, and Langgam Jawa’ (1991; SF40056); Vol. 3: ‘Music from the outskirts of Jakarta: Gambang Kromong’ (1991; SF40057); Vol. 4: ‘Music of Nias and North Sumatra: Hoho, Gendang Karo, Gondang Toba’ (1992; SF40420); Vol. 5: ‘Betawi and Sundanese music of the north coast of Java: Topeng Betawi, Tanjidor, Ajeng’ (1994; SF40421); Vol. 6: ‘Night music of West Sumatra: Saluang, Rabab Pariaman, Dendang Pauah’(1994; SF 40422).

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Sutton,R.Anderson, Wim Zanten, T.E.Behrend, Willem Remmelink, Erik Brandt, Eric Venbrux, Madelon Djajadiningrat-Nieuwenhuis, et al. "Book Reviews." Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde / Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences of Southeast Asia 152, no.2 (1996): 293–338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/22134379-90003015.

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- R. Anderson Sutton, Wim van Zanten, Ethnomusicology in the Netherlands: present situation and traces of the past. Leiden: Centre of Non-Western Studies, Leiden University, 1995, ix + 330 pp. [Oideion; The performing arts worldwide 2. Special Issue]., Marjolijn van Roon (eds.) - T.E. Behrend, Willem Remmelink, The Chinese War and the collapse of the Javanese state, 1725-1743. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1994, 297 pp. [Verhandelingen 162]. - Erik Brandt, Eric Venbrux, A death in the Tiwi Islands; Conflict, ritual and social life in an Australian Aboriginal Community. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995, xvii + 269 pp. - Madelon Djajadiningrat-Nieuwenhuis, Tineke Hellwig, In the shadow of change; Images of women in Indonesian literature. Berkeley: University of California, Centers for South and Southeast Asia Studies, 1994, xiii + 259 pp. [Monograph 35]. - M. Estellie Smith, Peter J.M. Nas, Issues in urban development; Case studies from Indonesia. Leiden: Research School CNWS, 1995, 293 pp. [CNWS Publications 33]. - Uta Gärtner, Jan Becka, Historical dictionary of Myanmar. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, xxii + 328 pp. [Asian Historical Dictionaries 15]. - Beatriz van der Goes, H. Slaats, Wilhelm Middendorp over de Karo Batak, 1914-1919. Deel 1. Nijmegen: Katholieke Universiteit, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, 1994, xvii + 313 pp. [Reeks Recht en Samenleving 11]., K. Portier (eds.) - Stephen C. Headley, Janet Carsten, About the house, Lévi-Strauss and beyond. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995, xiv + 300 pp., Stephen Hugh-Jones (eds.) - Stephen C. Headley, James J. Fox, Inside Austronesian houses; Perspectives on domestic designs for living. Canberra: Department of Anthropology, Research School of Pacific Studies, The Australian National University, 1993, x + 237 pp. - M. Hekker, Helmut Buchholt, Continuity, change and aspirations; Social and cultural life in Minahasa, Indonesia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1994, vii + 231 pp., Ulricht Mai (eds.) - Tineke Hellwig, Brigitte Müller, Op de wipstoel; De niet-gewettigde inheemse vrouw van de blanke Europeaan in Nederlands-Indië (1890-1940); Een literatuuronderzoek naar beeldvorming en werkelijkheid. Amsterdam: Vakgroep Culturele Antropologie/Sociologie der Niets-Westerse Samenlevingen, 1995, xii + 131 pp. - Jan van der Putten, Liaw Yock Fang, Standard Malay made simple. Singapore: Times Books International, 1988. - Jan van der Putten, Liaw Yock Fang, Standard Indonesian made simple, written with the assistance of Nini Tiley-Notodisuryo, Singapore: Times Books International, 1990. - Jan van der Putten, Liaw Yock Fang, Speak standard Malay; A beginner’s guide. Singapore: Times Books International, 1993, xxii + 280 pp. - Jan van der Putten, Liaw Yock Fang, Speak Indonesian; A beginner’s guide, written in collaboration with Munadi Padmadiwiria and Abdullah Hassan. Singapore: Times Books International, 1990. - Alle G. Hoekema, Chr.G.F. de Jong, Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse Zending op Zuid-Sulawesi 1852-1966; Een bronnenpublicatie. Oegstgeest: Raad voor de Zending der Nederlands Hervormde Kerk, 1995, xi + 524 pp. - George Hotze, Ronald G. Gill, De Indische stad op Java en Madura; Een morfologische studie van haar ontwikkeling. Delft: Publikatieburo Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Delft, 1995, 350 pp. - H.A.J. Klooster, Holk H. Dengel, Neuere Darstellung der Geschichte Indonesiens in Bahasa Inonesia; Entwicklung und Tendenzen der indonesischen Historiographie. Stuttgart: Steiner, 1994, vii + 269 pp. - Harry A. Poeze, Hans Antlöv, Imperial policy and Southeast Asian nationalism 1930-1957. Richmond: Curzon Press, 1995, xiii + 323 pp., Stein Tonnesson (eds.) - P.W. Preston, Michael Hill, The politics of nation building and citizenship in Singapore. London: Routledge, 1995, x + 285 pp., Lian Kwen Fee (eds.) - J.W. (Pim) Schoorl, Michael Southon, The navel of the perahu; Meaning and values in the maritime trading economy of a Butonese village. Canberra: Department of Anthropology, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University, 1995, xiv + 150 pp. - Henk Schulte Nordholt, Geoffrey Robinson, The dark side of paradise; Political violence in Bali. Ithaca/London: Cornell University Press, 1995, xxii + 341 pp. - Herman A.O. de Tollenaere, Th. Stevens, Vrijmetselarij en samenleving in Nederlands-Indië en Indonesië 1764-1962. Hilversum: Verloren, 1994, 400 pp. - Donald E. Weatherbee, Mpu Prapañca, Desawarnana (Nagarakrtagama) by Mpu Prapañca, translated and edited by Stuart Robson. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1995, viii + 158 pp. [Verhandelingen 169]. - E.P. Wieringa, Jennifer Lindsay, Kraton Yogyakarta. Diterjemahkan oleh R.M. Soetanto dan T.E. Behrend. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 1994, xvi + 330 pp. [Seri katalog Induk Naskah-Naskah Nusantara 2]., R.M. Soetanto, Alan Feinstein (eds.) - E.P. Wieringa, Wouter Smit, De islam binnen de horizon; Een missiologische studie over de benadering van de islam door vier Nederlandse zendingscorporaties (1797-1951). Zoetermeer: Boekencentrum, 1995, xix + 312 pp. [MISSION 11].

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Pimm,StuartL. "Biodiversity as EverythingMeasuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity: Standard Methods for Mammals.Don E. Wilson , F. Russell Cole , James D. Nichols , Rasanayagam Rudran , Mercedes S. FosterArctic and Alpine Biodiversity: Patterns, Causes and Ecosystem Consequences.F. Stuart Chapin III , Christian KornerBiodiversity II: Understanding and Protecting Our Biological Resources.Marjorie L. Reaka-Kudla , Don E. Wilson , Edward O. WilsonThe Idea of Biodiversity: Philosophies of Paradise.David TakacsThe Value of Life: Biological Diversity and Human Society.Stephen R. KellertEthics on the Ark: Zoos, Animal Welfare, and Wildlife Conservation.Bryan G. Norton , Michael Hutchins , Elizabeth F. Stevens , Terry L. MapleBiodiversity Loss: Economic and Ecological Issues.Charles Perrings , Karl-Goran Maler , Carl Folke , C. S. Holling , Bengt-Owe Jansson." Quarterly Review of Biology 73, no.1 (March 1998): 51–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/420059.

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Mączyńska, Elżbieta. "The economy of excess versus doctrine of quality." Kwartalnik Nauk o Przedsiębiorstwie 42, no.1 (March29, 2017): 9–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0010.0142.

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A review article devoted to the book of Andrzej Blikle – Doktryna jakości. Rzecz o skutecznym zarządzaniu. As pointed out by the Author, the book is a case of a work rare on the Polish publishing market, written by an outstanding scientist, who successfully runs a business activity. The combination of practical experience with theoretical knowledge gave a result that may be satisfying both for practitioners as well as theorists, and also those who want to get to know the ins and outs of an effective and efficient business management. The Author of the review believes that it is an important voice for shaping an inclusive socio-economic system, which constitutes a value in itself. Although the book is mainly concerned with business management, its message has a much wider dimension and is concerned with real measures of wealth, money and people’s lives. The book was awarded The SGH Collegium of Business Administration Award “For the best scientific work in the field of business administration in the years 2014-2015”. Andrzej Jacek Blikle Doktryna jakości. Rzecz o skutecznym zarządzaniu (The Doctrine of Quality. On Effective Management) Gliwice, Helion Publishing Company, 2014, p. 546 Introduction One of the distinctive features of the contemporary economy and contemporary world is a kind of obsession of quantity which is related to thoughtless consumerism, unfavourable to the care for the quality of the work and the quality of the produced and consumed goods and services. It is accompanied by culture (or rather non-culture) of singleness. Therefore, the book The Doctrine of Quality by Andrzej Blikle is like a breath of fresh air. It is a different perspective on the economy and the model of operation of enterprises, on the model of work and life of people. A. Blikle proves that it can be done otherwise. He proves it on the basis of careful studies of the source literature – as expected from a professor of mathematics and an economist, but also on the basis of his own experience gained during the scientific and educational work, and most of all through the economic practice. In the world governed by the obsession of quantity, characterised by fragility, shortness of human relationships, including the relationship of the entrepreneur – employee, A. Blikle chooses durability of these relations, creativity, responsibility, quality of work and production, and ethics. The Doctrine of Quality is a rare example of the work on the Polish publishing market, whose author is a prominent scientist, successfully conducting a business activity for more than two decades, which has contributed to the development of the family company – a known confectionery brand “A. Blikle”. The combination of practical experience with theoretical knowledge gave a result that may be satisfying both for practitioners as well as theorists, and also those who want to get to know the ins and outs of an effective and efficient business management, or develop the knowledge on this topic. In an attractive, clear narrative form, the author comprehensively presents the complexities of business management, indicating the sources of success, but also the reasons and the foundations of failures. At the same time, he presents these issues with an interdisciplinary approach, which contributes to thoroughness of the arguments and deeper reflections. Holism, typical to this book, is also expressed in the focus of A. Blikle not only on the economic, but also on social and ecological issues. Here, the author points to the possibility and need of reconciliation of the economic interests with social interests, and the care for the public good. Analyses of this subject are presented using the achievements of many areas of studies, in addition to economic sciences, including mathematics, sociology, psychology, medicine, and others. This gives a comprehensive picture of the complexity of business management – taking into account its close and distant environment. There are no longueurs in the book, although extensive (over 500 pages), or lengthy, or even unnecessary reasoning overwhelming the reader, as the text is illustrated with a number of examples from practice, and coloured with anecdotes. At the same time, the author does not avoid using expressions popular in the world of (not only) business. He proves that a motivational system which is not based on the approach of “carrot and stick” and without a devastating competition of a “rat race” is possible. The author supports his arguments with references not only to the interdisciplinary scientific achievements, but also to the economic historical experiences and to a variety of older and newer business models. There is a clear fascination with the reserves of creativity and productivity in the humanization of work. In fact, the author strongly exposes the potential of productivity and creativity in creating the conditions and atmosphere of work fostering elimination of fear of the future. He shows that such fear destroys creativity. It is not a coincidence that A. Blikle refers to the Fordist principles, including the warning that manufacturing and business do not consist of cheap buying and expensive selling. He reminds that Henry Ford, a legendary creator of the development of the automotive industry in the United States, put serving the public before the profit. The Doctrine of Quality is at the same time a book – proof that one of the most dangerous misconceptions or errors in the contemporary understanding of economics is finding that it is a science of making money, chremastics. Edmund Phelps and others warned against this in the year of the outbreak of the financial crisis in the USA in 2008, reminding that economics is not a science of making money but a science of relations between the economy and social life [Phelps, 2008]. Economics is a science of people in the process of management. Therefore, by definition, it applies to social values and ethos. Ethos is a general set of values, standards and models of proceedings adopted by a particular group of people. In this sense, ethos and economics as a science of people in the process of management are inseparable. Detaching economics from morality is in contradiction to the classical Smithian concept of economics, as Adam Smith combined the idea of the free market with morality. He treated his first work, The Theory of Moral Sentiments, as an inseparable basis for deliberations on the nature and causes of the wealth of nations, which was the subject of the subsequent work of this thinker [Smith, 1989; Smith, 2012]. Identifying economics with chremastics would then mean that all actions are acceptable and desired, if their outcome is earnings, profit, money. The book of A. Blikle denies it. It contains a number of case studies, which also stimulate broader reflections. Therefore, and also due to the features indicated above, it can be a very useful teaching aid in teaching entrepreneurship and management. The appearance of a book promoting the doctrine of quality and exposing the meaning of ethos of work is especially important because today the phenomenon of product adulteration becomes increasingly widespread, which is ironically referred to in literature as the “gold-plating” of products [Sennett, 2010, pp. 115-118], and the trend as “antifeatures”, that is intentionally limiting the efficiency and durability of products of daily use to create demand for new products. A model example of antifeature is a sim-lock installed in some telephones which makes it impossible to use SIM cards of foreign operators [Rohwetter, 2011, p. 48; Miszewski, 2013]. These types of negative phenomena are also promoted by the development of systemic solutions aiming at the diffusion of responsibility [Sennett, 2010]. This issue is presented among others by Nassim N.N. Taleb, in the book with a meaningful title Antifragile: How to Live in a World We Don’t Understand? The author proves that the economy and society lose their natural durability as a result of the introduction of numerous tools and methods of insurance against risks, but mostly by shifting the burden of risks on other entities [Taleb, 2012]. N.N. Taleb illustrates his arguments with numerous convincing examples and references to history, recalling, inter alia, that in ancient times there was no building control, but the constructors, e.g. of bridges had to sleep under them for some time after their construction, and the ancient aqueducts are still working well until today. So, he shows that a contemporary world, focused on quantitative effects, does not create a sound base for ethical behaviours and the care for the quality of work and manufacturing. Andrzej Blikle points to the need and possibility of opposing this, and opposing to what the Noble Price Winner for Economics, Joseph Stiglitz described as avarice triumphs over prudence [Stiglitz, 2015, p. 277]. The phrase emphasised in the book “Live and work with a purpose” is the opposition to the dangerous phenomena listed above, such as for example antifeatures. convincing that although the business activity is essentially focused on profits, making money, limited to this, it would be led to the syndrome of King Midas, who wanted to turn everything he touched into gold, but he soon realised that he was at risk of dying of starvation, as even the food turned into gold. What distinguishes this book is that almost every part of it forces in-depth reflections on the social and economic relations and brings to mind the works of other authors, but at the same time, creates a new context for them. So, A. Blikle clearly proves that both the economy and businesses need social rooting. This corresponds to the theses of the Hungarian intellectual Karl Polanyi, who in his renowned work The Great Transformation, already in 1944 argued that the economy is not rooted in the social relations [Polanyi, 2010, p. 70]. He pointed to the risk resulting from commodification of everything, and warned that allowing the market mechanism and competition to control the human life and environment would result in disintegration of society. Although K. Polanyi’s warnings were concerned with the industrial civilization, they are still valid, even now – when the digital revolution brings fundamental changes, among others, on the labour market – they strengthen it. The dynamics of these changes is so high that it seems that the thesis of Jeremy Rifkin on the end of work [Rifkin, 2003] becomes more plausible. It is also confirmed by recent analyses included in the book of this author, concerning the society of zero marginal cost and sharing economy [Rifkin, 2016], and the analyses concerning uberisation [Uberworld, 2016]. The book of Andrzej Blikle also evokes one of the basic asymmetries of the contemporary world, which is the inadequacy of the dynamics and sizes of the supply of products and services to the dynamics and sizes of the demand for them. Insufficient demand collides with the rapidly increasing, as a result of technological changes, possibilities of growth of production and services. This leads to overproduction and related therewith large negative implications, with features of wasteful economy of excess [Kornai, 2014]. It is accompanied by phenomena with features of some kind of market bulimia, sick consumerism, detrimental both to people and the environment [Rist, 2015]. One of the more compromising signs of the economy of excess and wasting of resources is wasting of food by rich countries, when simultaneously, there are areas of hunger in some parts of the world [Stuart, 2009]. At the same time, the economy of excess does not translate to the comfort of the buyers of goods – as in theory attributed to the consumer market. It is indicated in the publication of Janos Kornai concerning a comparative analysis of the features of socio-economic systems. While exposing his deep critical evaluation of socialist non-market systems, as economies of constant deficiency, he does not spare critical opinions on the capitalist economy of excess, with its quest for the growth of the gross domestic product (GDP) and profits. As an example of the economy of excess, he indicates the pharmaceutical industry, with strong monopolistic competition, dynamic innovativeness, wide selection for the buyers, flood of advertisem*nts, manipulation of customers, and often bribing the doctors prescribing products [Kornai 2014, p. 202]. This type of abnormalities is not alien to other industries. Although J. Konrai appreciates that in the economy of excess, including the excess of production capacities, the excess is “grease” calming down and soothing clashes that occur in the mechanisms of adaptation, he also sees that those who claim that in the economy of excess (or more generally in the market economy), sovereignty of consumers dominates, exaggerate [Kornai, 2014, pp. 171-172], as the manufacturers, creating the supply, manipulate the consumers. Thus, there is an excess of supply – both of values as well as junk [Kornai, 2014, p. 176]. Analysing the economy of excess, J. Kornai brings this issue to the question of domination and subordination. It corresponds with the opinion of Jerzy Wilkin, according to whom, the free market can also enslave, so take away individual freedom; on the other hand, the lack of the free market can lead to enslavement as well. Economists willingly talk about the free market, and less about the free man [Wilkin, 2014, p. 4]. The economy of excess is one of the consequences of making a fetish of the economic growth and its measure, which is the gross domestic product (GDP) and treating it as the basis of social and economic activity. In such a system, the pressure of growth is created, so you must grow to avoid death! The system is thus comparable to a cyclist, who has to move forwards to keep his balance [Rist, 2015, p. 181]. It corresponds with the known, unflattering to economists, saying of Kenneth E. Boulding [1956], criticising the focus of economics on the economic growth, while ignoring social implications and consequences to the environment: Anyone who believes in indefinite growth in anything physical, on a physically finite planet, is either mad or an economist. [from: Rist, 2015, p. 268]. GDP is a very much needed or even indispensable measure for evaluation of the material level of the economies of individual countries and for comparing their economic health. However, it is insufficient for evaluation of the real level of welfare and quality of life. It requires supplementation with other measures, as it takes into account only the values created by the market purchase and sale transactions. It reflects only the market results of the activity of enterprises and households. Additionally, the GDP account threats the socially desirable and not desirable activities equally. Thus, the market activity related to social pathologies (e.g. functioning of prisons, prostitution, and drug dealing) also increase the GDP. It was accurately expressed already in 1968 by Robert Kennedy, who concluded the discussion on this issue saying that: the gross national product does not allow for the health of our children, the quality of their education or the joy of their play. It does not include the beauty of our poetry or the strength of our marriages, the intelligence of our public debate or the integrity of our public officials. It measures neither our wit nor our courage, neither our wisdom nor our learning, neither our compassion nor our devotion to our country, it measures everything in short, except that which makes life worthwhile [The Guardian, 2012]. While Grzegorz W. Kołodko even states that it should be surprising how it is possible that despite a number of alternative measures of social and economic progress, we are still in the corset of narrow measure of the gross product, which completely omits many significant aspects of the social process of reproduction [Kołodko, 2013, p. 44]. In this context he points to the necessity of triple sustainable growth – economic, social, and ecological [Kołodko, 2013, p. 377]. Transition from the industrial civilisation model to the new model of economy, to the age of information, causes a kind of cultural regression, a phenomenon of cultural anchoring in the old system. This type of lock-in effect - described in the source literature, that is the effect of locking in the existing frames and systemic solutions, is a barrier to development. The practice more and more often and clearer demonstrates that in the conditions of the new economy, the tools and traditional solutions turn out to be not only ineffective, but they even increase the risk of wrong social and economic decisions, made at different institutional levels. All this proves that new development models must be searched for and implemented, to allow counteraction to dysfunctions of the contemporary economy and wasting the development potential, resulting from a variety of maladjustments generated by the crisis of civilisation. Polish authors who devote much of their work to these issues include G.W. Kołodko, Jerzy Kleer, or Maciej Bałtowski. Studies confirm that there is a need for a new pragmatism, new, proinclusive model of shaping the social and economic reality, a model which is more socially rooted, aiming at reconciling social, economic and ecological objectives, with simultaneous optimisation of the use of the social and economic potential [Kołodko, 2013; Bałtowski, 2016; Kleer, 2015]. There is more and more evidence that the barriers to economic development growing in the global economy are closely related with the rooting of the economy in social relations. The book of A. Blikle becomes a part of this trend in a new and original manner. Although the author concentrates on the analyses of social relations mainly at the level of an enterprise, at the same time, he comments them at a macroeconomic, sociological and ethical level, and interdisciplinary contexts constitute an original value of the book. Conclusion I treat the book of Andrzej Blike as an important voice in favour of shaping an inclusive social and economic system, in favour of shaping inclusive enterprises, that is oriented on an optimal absorption of knowledge, innovation and effective reconciliation of the interests of entrepreneurs with the interests of employees and the interests of society. Inclusiveness is indeed a value in itself. It is understood as a mechanism/system limiting wasting of material resources and human capital, and counteracting environmental degradation. An inclusive social and economic system is a system oriented on optimisation of the production resources and reducing the span between the actual and potential level of economic growth and social development [Reforma, 2015]. And this is the system addressed by Andrzej Blikle in his book. At least this is how I see it. Although the book is mainly concerned with business management, its message has a much wider dimension and is concerned with real measures of wealth, money and people’s lives. null

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Hummler, Madeleine. "Americas - Donald A. Proulx. A Sourcebook of Nasca Ceramic Iconography: Readinga Culture through its Art. xiv+236 pages, 335 figures, 40 colour plates. 2006. Iowa City (IA): University of Iowa Press; 978-0-87745-979-8 hardback $59.95. - Robert D. Drennan. Prehispanic Chiefdoms in the Valle de la Plata, Volume 5: Regional Settlement Patterns/Cacicazgos Prehispanicos del Valle de la Plata, Tomo 5: Patrones de Asentamiento Regionales (University ofPittsburgh Memoirs in Latin American Archaeology 16). xxvi+236 pages, 119 illustrations, 23 tables. 2006. Pittsburgh & Bogotá: University of Pittsburgh Department of Anthropology & Universidad de Los Andes Departamento de Antropología; 978-1-877812-82-8 paperback $36. - Steve Bourget. Sex, Death, and Sacrifice in Moche Religion and Visual Culture. xiv+258 pages, 260 illustrations, 25 colour plates, 4 tables. 2006. Austin (TX): University of Texas Press; 978-0-292-71279-9 hardback £38. - Jessica Joyce Christie & Patricia Joan Sarro (ed). Palaces and Power in the Americas: From Peru to the Northwest Coast. xiv+414 pages, 126 illustrations, 4 tables. 2006. Austin (TX): University of Texas Press; 978-0-292-70984-3 hardback £29. - Helaine Silverman (ed.). Archaeological Site Museums in Latin America. xviii+302 pages, 92 illustrations, 1 table. 2006. Gainesville (FL): University Press of Florida; 978-0-8130-3001-2 hardback $65. - Stephen Houston, David Stuart & Karl Taube. The Memory of Bones: Body, Being, and Experience among the Classic Maya. viii+324 pages, 265 illustrations. Austin (TX): University of Texas Press; 0-292-71294-4 hardback £35. - Traci Ardren & Scott R. Hutson (ed.). The SocialExperience ofChildhoodin AncientMesoamerica. xxii+310 pages, 73 illustrations, 11 tables. 2006. Boulder (CO): University Press of Colorado; 9780-87081-827-1 hardback $45. - Jon M. Weeks & Jane A. Hill (ed.). The Carnegie Maya: The Carnegie Institution ofWashington Maya Research Program, 1913–1957. 784 pages, 25 illustrations, 44 tables. 2006. Boulder (CO): University Press of Colorado; 978-0-87081-833-2 hardback with CD-ROM $275; 978-0-87081-8349 CD-ROM only $200. - Vera Tiesler & Andrea Cucina (ed.). Janaab’Pakal of Palenque: Reconstructing the Life and Death of a Maya Ruler. xiv+220 pages, 47 illustrations, 13 tables. 2006. Tucson (AZ): University of Arizona Press; 9780-8165-2510-2 hardback $50. - A. Martin Byers. Cahokia: A World Renewal Cult Heterarchy. xiv+600 pages, 53 illustrations, 25 tables. 2006. Gainesville (FL): University Press of Florida; 978-0-8130-2958-0 hardback $69.95. - RONALD J. Mason. Inconstant Companions: Archaeology and North American Indian Oral Traditions. xii+298 pages, 2006. Tuscaloosa (AL): University of Alabama Press; 978-0-8173-1533-7 hardback $50. - Jordan E. Kerber (ed.). Cross-Cultural Collaboration: Native Peoples and Archaeology in the Northeastern United States. xxxii+378 pages, 27 illustrations. 2006. Lincoln (NE): University of Nebraska Press; 978-0-8032-7817-2 paperback; 9780-8032-2765-1 hardback £40. - Clarence R. Geier, David G. Orr & Matthew B. Reeves (ed.). Huts and History: The Historical Archaeology of Military Encampment during the American Civil War. xviii+280 pages, 82 illustrations, 3 tables. 2006. Gainesville (FL): University Press of Florida; 978-0-8130-2941-2 hardback $65. - David Erroll & John Erroll, photographs by Anne Day. American Genius: Nineteenth-Century Banklocks and Time Locks. 368 pages, 400 b&w & colour illustrations. 2006. New York: Quantuck Lane Press; 978-1-59372-016-2 hardback £35, $95 & CAN$125." Antiquity 81, no.311 (March1, 2007): 248–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0003598x00120241.

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Cueva Fernández, Ricardo. "Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill y el “Poder Esclavista." Télos 20, no.1 (July15, 2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.15304/t.20.1.2679.

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Brunet, Valentine. "John Stuart Mill et Karl Marx face aux limites de la propriété privée." La Révolution française, no.17 (January27, 2020). http://dx.doi.org/10.4000/lrf.3600.

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Stage, Carsten. "Socialkonstruktivisme, sprog og identitet: Identitetsforhandlinger på Eva Dien Brine Markvoorts sygdomsblog 65 Red Roses." Scandinavian Studies in Language 6, no.3 (April7, 2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.7146/sss.v6i3.20648.

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Socialkonstruktivismen har været genstand for heftig kritik for at understøtte en form for begrebsrelativisme, der påstår, at virkeligheden skabes af vores begreber om den. Et delmål med artiklen er at gøre op med denne karikatur af konstruktivismen som en hom*ogen teoretisk position, der reducerer alt til sprog og italesættelse eller indebærer en tro på, at alle identiteter blot er effekter af begreber. Dette gøres ved at præsentere og diskutere teorier af bl.a. Michel Foucault, Ernesto Laclau og Chantal Mouffe, Judith Butler, Stuart Hall, Karl Popper og Richard Jenkins med det formål at kunne skelne mellem forskellige former for, eller grader af, konstruktivisme. De forskellige konstruktivismeformers udsigelseskraft diskuteres dernæst gennem en analyse af et medieobjekt – Eva Dien Brine Markvoorts sygdomsblog 65 Red Roses.

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Pina-Cabral, João, and Dimitrios Theodossopoulos. "Thinking about generations, conjuncturally: A toolkit." Sociological Review, December13, 2021, 003802612110623. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00380261211062301.

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Since the early twentieth century, generation has been a recurrent concept in social analysis. In spite of successive bouts of critique and periods of relative neglect, the category has never been abandoned. In this article, drawing inspiration from a broad range of thinkers – such as José Ortega y Gasset, Karl Mannheim, Antonio Gramsci, Pierre Bourdieu, Raymond Williams and Stuart Hall – we review and fine tune our conceptual toolkit regarding generations, making more explicitly visible its affordances for social analysis in times of crisis. We focus on the problem of intergenerational overlap of contemporaneity and the contradictions that emerge from it. We argue that the notion of coevalness can help us resolve some of these contradictions – for example, the lag between contemporaneity and generational awareness – and introduce, through its horizontal connotations, a decolonising ethical stance. Favouring a processual understanding of generation, we recommend ‘conjunctural analysis’ as the most flexible analytical framework for resolving the intersectional contradictions and overlaps of generational categorisation.

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De Oliveira, Webert Ribeiro, and Luciano Costa Santos. "A ética do bem pensar no contexto da escola sem partido." Aprender - Caderno de Filosofia e Psicologia da Educação, no.18 (April16, 2018). http://dx.doi.org/10.22481/aprender.v0i18.3646.

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Nesse artigo, visa-se realizar uma visitação a pensadores que contribuíram de modo significativo para a compreensão do ato de educar, na perspectiva da diversidade. A partir de um diálogo com Paulo Freire, torna-se possível a abertura do horizonte hermenêutico da atitude crítica de interpretação das fontes. Procura-se, a partir desse pressuposto, realizar uma releitura do sentido atual que traz o ensino da filosofia. Dessa maneira, é possível responder, a partir de autores como: Karl Marx, Stuart Hall, Edgar Morin, Ricardo Timm e Zygmund Bauman, quais os desafios éticos e os obstáculos epistemológicos que dificultam o bem pensar. Disso resulta, que a atual proposta Escola Sem Partido é um modo de anulação do Outro e negação da diferença que, a partir do contexto da pós-modernidade, destitui as relações de alteridade no teste ácido da liquidez, tornando a dimensão ética dessa crise um problema a ser enfrentado pela educação brasileira, tendo em vista os efeitos negativos que impedem o diálogo intercultural e a liberdade de expressão entre educadores e educandos.

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"Book Reviews." Journal of Economic Literature 49, no.3 (September1, 2011): 727–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/jel.49.3.719.r5.

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William J. Baumol of New York University and Princeton University reviews “Economics Evolving: A History of Economic Thought” by Agnar Sandmo. The EconLit Abstract of the reviewed work begins “Revised and expanded English translation of Samfunnsokonomi--en idehistorie (2006). Presents a history of economic thought from the late eighteenth century to the 1970s. Discusses a science and its history; before Adam Smith; Adam Smith; the classical school--Thomas Robert Malthus and David Ricardo; consolidation and innovation--John Stuart Mill; Karl Marx as an economic theorist; the forerunners of marginalism; the marginalist revolution--William Stanley Jevons, Carl Menger, and Leon Walras; Alfred Marshall and partial equilibrium theory; equilibrium and welfare--Francis Ysidro Edgeworth, Vilfredo Pareto, and Arthur C. Pigou; interest and prices--Knut Wicksell and Irving Fisher; new perspectives on markets and competition; the great systems debate; John Maynard Keynes and the Keynesian revolution; Ragnar Frisch, Trygve Haavelmo, and the birth of econometrics; the modernization of economic theory in the postwar period; further developments in the postwar period; and long-term trends and new perspectives. Sandmo is Professor Emeritus of Economics at the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration. Index.”

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"“Drivers of year-to-year variation in exacerbation frequency of COPD: analysis of the AERIS cohort” Tom M.A. Wilkinson, Emmanuel Aris, Simon C. Bourne, Stuart C. Clarke, Mathieu Peeters, Thierry G. Pascal, Laura Taddei, Andrew C. Tuck, Viktoriya L. Kim, Kristoffer K. Ostridge, Karl J. Staples, Nicholas P. Williams, Anthony P. Williams, Stephen A. Wootton and Jeanne-Marie Devaster, on behalf of the AERIS Study Group. ERJ Open Res 2019; 5: 00248-2018." ERJ Open Research 5, no.3 (July 2019): 00248–2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/23120541.50248-2018.

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"Inhalt." Zeitschrift für Historische Forschung 47, no.1 (January1, 2020): 1–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.3790/zhf.47.1.toc.

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Abhandlungen und Aufsätze Robert Gramsch-Stehfest, Von der Metapher zur Methode. Netzwerkanalyse als Instrument zur Erforschung vormoderner Gesellschaften . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Sarah-Maria Schober, Zibet und Zeit. Timescapes eines frühneuzeitlichen Geruchs 41 Buchbesprechungen Crailsheim, Eberhard /Maria D. Elizalde (Hrsg.), The Representation of External Threats. From the Middle Ages to the Modern World (Wolfgang Reinhard) . . . . 79 Höfele, Andreas / Beate Kellner (Hrsg.), Natur in politischenOrdnungsentwürfen der Vormoderne. Unter Mitwirkung von Christian Kaiser (Stefano Saracino) 80 Jütte, Robert / Romedio Schmitz-Esser (Hrsg.), Handgebrauch. Geschichten von der Hand aus dem Mittelalter und der Frühen Neuzeit (Barbara Stollberg- Rilinger) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Tomaini, Thea (Hrsg.), Dealing with the Dead. Mortality and Community in Medieval and Early Modern Europe Lahtinen, Anu / Mia Korpiola (Hrsg.), Dying Prepared in Medieval and Early Modern Northern Europe (Ralf-Peter Fuchs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Dyer, Christopher / Erik Thoen / Tom Williamson (Hrsg.), Peasants and Their Fields. The Rationale of Open-Field Agriculture, c. 700–1800 (Werner Troßbach) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Andermann, Kurt / Nina Gallion (Hrsg.), Weg und Steg. Aspekte des Verkehrswesens von der Spätantike bis zum Ende des Alten Reiches (Sascha Bütow) 88 Jaspert, Nikolas / Christian A. Neumann /Marco di Branco (Hrsg.), Ein Meer und seine Heiligen. Hagiographie im mittelalterlichen Mediterraneum (Michael North) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Müller, Harald (Hrsg.), Der Verlust der Eindeutigkeit. Zur Krise päpstlicher Autorität im Kampf um die Cathedra Petri (Thomas Wetzstein) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Ehrensperger, Alfred, Geschichte des Gottesdienstes in Zürich Stadt und Land im Spätmittelalter und in der frühen Reformation bis 1531 (Andreas Odenthal) 93 Demurger, Alain, Die Verfolgung der Templer. Chronik einer Vernichtung. 1307– 1314 (Jochen Burgtorf) . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Caudrey, Philip J., Military Society and the Court of Chivalry in the Age of the Hundred Years War (Stefan G. Holz) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Hesse, Christian / Regula Schmid / Roland Gerber (Hrsg.), Eroberung und Inbesitznahme. Die Eroberung des Aargaus 1415 im europäischen Vergleich / Conquest and Occupation. The 1415 Seizure of the Aargau in European Perspective (Rainer Hugener) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Krafft, Otfried, Landgraf Ludwig I. von Hessen (1402–1458). Politik und historiographische Rezeption (Uwe Schirmer) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Neustadt, Cornelia, Kommunikation im Konflikt. König Erik VII. von Dänemark und die Städte im südlichen Ostseeraum (1423–1435) (Carsten Jahnke) . . . . . . . 102 Kekewich, Margaret, Sir John Fortescue and the Governance of England (Maree Shirota). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 MacGregor, Arthur, Naturalists inthe Field. Collecting, Recording andPreserving the Natural World from the Fifteenth to the Twenty-First Century (Bettina Dietz) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Jones, Pamela M. / Barbara Wisch / Simon Ditchfield (Hrsg.), A Companion to Early Modern Rome, 1492–1692 (Wolfgang Reinhard) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Frömmer, Judith, Italien im Heiligen Land. Typologien frühneuzeitlicher Gründungsnarrative (Cornel Zwierlein) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 De Benedictis, Angela, Neither Disobedients nor Rebels. Lawful Resistance in Early Modern Italy (Wolfgang Reinhard) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Raggio, Osvaldo, Feuds and State Formation, 1550–1700. The Backcountry of the Republic of Genoa (Magnus Ressel) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Ingram,Kevin, ConversoNon-Conformism in Early Modern Spain.BadBlood and Faith from Alonso de Cartagena to Diego Velázquez (Joël Graf) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Kirschvink, Dominik, Die Revision als Rechtsmittel im Alten Reich (Tobias Schenk) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Haag, Norbert, Dynastie, Region, Konfession. Die Hochstifte des Heiligen Römischen Reiches Deutscher Nation zwischen Dynastisierung und Konfessionalisierung (1448–1648) (Kurt Andermann) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Steinfels, Marc / Helmut Meyer, Vom Scharfrichteramt ins Zürcher Bürgertum. Die Familie Volmar-Steinfelsundder Schweizer Strafvollzug (FranciscaLoetz) 120 Kohnle, Armin (Hrsg.), Luthers Tod. Ereignis und Wirkung (Eike Wolgast) . . . . . . 122 Zwierlein, Cornel / Vincenzo Lavenia (Hrsg.), Fruits of Migration. Heterodox Italian Migrants and Central European Culture 1550–1620 (Stephan Steiner) 123 „Inquisitionis Hispanicae Artes“: The Arts of the Spanish Inquisition. Reginaldus Gonsalvius Montanus. A Critical Edition of the „Sanctae Inquisitionis Hispanicae Artes aliquot“ (1567) with aModern English Translation, hrsg. v. Marcos J. Herráiz Pareja / Ignacio J. García Pinilla / Jonathan L. Nelson (Wolfram Drews) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Lattmann, Christopher, Der Teufel, die Hexe und der Rechtsgelehrte. Crimen magiae und Hexenprozess in Jean Bodins „De la Démonomanie des Sorciers“ (Andreas Flurschütz da Cruz) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Gorrochategui Santos, Luis, The English Armada. The Greatest Naval Disaster in English History (Patrick Schmidt) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Schäfer-Griebel, Alexandra, Die Medialität der Französischen Religionskriege. Frankreich und das Heilige Römische Reich 1589 (Mona Garloff) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Malettke, Klaus, Richelieu. Ein Leben im Dienste des Königs und Frankreichs (Michael Rohrschneider) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Windler, Christian, Missionare in Persien. Kulturelle Diversität und Normenkonkurrenz im globalen Katholizismus (17.–18. Jahrhundert) (Tobias Winnerling) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Amsler, Nadine, Jesuits and Matriarchs. Domestic Worship in Early Modern China (Tobias Winnerling) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Seppel, Marten / Keith Tribe (Hrsg.), Cameralism in Practice. State Administration and Economy in Early Modern Europe (Justus Nipperdey) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Fludd, Robert, Utriusque Cosmi Historia. Faksimile-Edition der Ausgabe Oppenheim/ Frankfurt, Johann Theodor de Bry, 1617–1624, hrsg. u. mit ausführlichen Einleitungen versehen v. Wilhelm Schmidt-Biggemann (Martin Mulsow) 140 Rebitsch, Robert (Hrsg.), 1618. Der Beginn des Dreißigjährigen Krieges (Fabian Schulze) . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Kilián, Jan, Der Gerber und der Krieg. Soziale Biographie eines böhmischen Bürgers aus der Zeit des Dreißigjährigen Krieges (Robert Jütte) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Caldari, Valentina / Sara J. Wolfson (Hrsg.), Stuart Marriage Diplomacy. Dynastic Politics in Their European Context, 1604–1630 (Martin Foerster) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Blakemore, Richard J. / Elaine Murphy, The British Civil Wars at Sea, 1638–1653 (Jann M. Witt) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Deflers, Isabelle /ChristianKühner(Hrsg.),LudwigXIV. –VorbildundFeindbild. Inszenierung und Rezeption der Herrschaft eines barocken Monarchen zwischen Heroisierung,Nachahmung undDämonisierung/LouisXIV– fascination et répulsion.Mise en scène et réception du règne d’un monarque baroque entre héroïsation, imitation et diabolisation (Anuschka Tischer) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Pérez Sarrión, Guillermo, The Emergence of a National Market in Spain, 1650– 1800. Trade Networks, Foreign Powers and the State (Hanna Sonkajärvi) . . . . . 151 Alimento, Antonella / Koen Stapelbroek (Hrsg.), The Politics of Commercial Treaties in the Eighteenth Century. Balance of Power, Balance of Trade (Justus Nipperdey) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 McDowell, Paula, The Invention of the Oral. Print Commerce and Fugitive Voices in Eighteenth-Century Britain (Markus Friedrich) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Bernhard, Jan-Andrea / Judith Engeler (Hrsg.), „Dass das Blut der heiligen Wunden mich durchgehet alle Stunden“. Frauen und ihre Lektüre im Pietismus (Helga Meise) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Hammer-Luza, Elke, Im Arrest. Zucht-, Arbeits- und Strafhäuser in Graz (1700– 1850) (Simon Karstens) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Oldach, Robert, Stadt und Festung Stralsund. Die schwedische Militärpräsenz in Schwedisch-Pommern 1721–1807 (Michael Busch) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Koller, Ekaterina E., Religiöse Grenzgänger im östlichen Europa. Glaubensenthusiasten um die Prophetin Ekaterina Tatarinova und den Pseudomessias Jakob Frank im Vergleich (1750–1850) (Agnieszka Pufelska) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Häberlein, Mark / Holger Zaunstöck (Hrsg.), Halle als Zentrum der Mehrsprachigkeit im langen 18. Jahrhundert (Martin Gierl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Geffarth, Renko / Markus Meumann / Holger Zaunstöck (Hrsg.), Kampf um die Aufklärung? Institutionelle Konkurrenzen und intellektuelle Vielfalt im Halle des 18. Jahrhunderts (Martin Gierl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Giro d’Italia. Die Reiseberichte des bayerischen Kurprinzen Karl Albrecht (1715/ 16). Eine historisch-kritische Edition, hrsg. v. Andrea Zedler / Jörg Zedler (Michael Maurer) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Backerra, Charlotte, Wien und London, 1727–1735. Internationale Beziehungen im frühen 18. Jahrhundert (Michael Schaich) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Gottesdienst im Bamberger Dom zwischen Barock und Aufklärung. Die Handschrift des Ordinarius L des Subkustos Johann Graff von 1730 als Edition mit Kommentar, hrsg. v. Franz Kohlschein / Werner Zeißner unter Mitarbeit v. Walter Milutzki (Tillmann Lohse) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Warnke, Marcus, Logistik und friderizianische Kriegsführung. Eine Studie zur Verteilung, Mobilisierung und Wirkungsmächtigkeit militärisch relevanter Ressourcen im Siebenjährigen Krieg am Beispiel des Jahres 1757 (Tilman Stieve) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Frey,Linda /Marsha Frey,TheCulture of French Revolutionary Diplomacy.In the Face of Europe (Christine Vogel) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Wagner, Johann Conrad, „Meine Erfahrungen in dem gegenwärtigen Kriege“. Tagebuch des Feldzugs mit Herzog Carl August von Weimar (Michael Kaiser) 178 Zamoyski, Adam, Napoleon. Ein Leben (Hans-Ulrich Thamer) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

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"Buchbesprechungen." Zeitschrift für Historische Forschung 46, no.4 (October1, 2019): 641–754. http://dx.doi.org/10.3790/zhf.46.4.641.

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Rexroth, Frank / Teresa Schröder-Stapper (Hrsg.), Experten, Wissen, Symbole. Performanz und Medialität vormoderner Wissenskulturen (Historische Zeitschrift. Beihefte (Neue Folge), 71), Berlin / Boston 2018, de Gruyter Oldenbourg, 336 S. / Abb., € 89,95. (Lisa Dannenberg-Markel, Aachen) Enenkel, Karl A. E. / Christine Göttler (Hrsg.), Solitudo. Spaces, Places, and Times of Solitude in Late Medieval and Early Modern Cultures (Intersections, 56), Leiden / Boston 2018, Brill, XXXIV u. 568 S. / Abb., € 165,00. (Mirko Breitenstein, Dresden / Leipzig) Tracy, Larissa (Hg.), Medieval and Early Modern Murder. Legal, Literary and Historical Contexts, Woodbridge 2018, Boydell Press, 486 S., £ 60,00. (Benjamin Seebröker, Dresden) Müller, Mario, Verletzende Worte. Beleidigung und Verleumdung in Rechtstexten aus dem Mittelalter und aus dem 16. Jahrhundert (Hildesheimer Universitätsschriften, 33), Hildesheim / Zürich / New York 2017, Olms, 410 S. / Abb., € 78,00. (Gerd Schwerhoff, Dresden) Heebøll-Holm, Thomas / Philipp Höhn / Gregor Rohmann (Hrsg.), Merchants, Pirates, and Smugglers. Criminalization, Economics, and the Transformation of the Maritime World (1200 – 1600) (Discourses of Weakness and Resource Regimes, 6), Frankfurt a. M. / New York 2019, Campus, 431 S., € 43,00. (Sebastian Kolditz, Heidelberg) Fox, Yaniv / Yosi Yisraeli (Hrsg.), Contesting Inter-Religious Conversion in the Medieval World, London / New York 2017, Routledge, VI u. 276 S. / Abb., £ 110,00. (Benjamin Scheller, Essen) Gruber, Elisabeth / Christina Lutter / Oliver J. Schmitt (Hrsg.), Kulturgeschichte der Überlieferung im Mittelalter. Quellen und Methoden zur Geschichte Mittel- und Südosteuropas (UTB, 4554), Köln / Weimar / Wien 2017, Böhlau, 510 S. / Abb., € 29,99. (Grischa Vercamer, Passau) Heiles, Marco, Das Losbuch. Manuskriptologie einer Textsorte des 14. bis 16. Jahrhunderts (Beihefte zum Archiv für Kulturgeschichte, 13), Wien / Köln / Weimar 2018, Böhlau, 574 S. / Abb., € 70,00. (Klaus Oschema, Bochum) Dartmann, Christoph, Die Benediktiner. Von den Anfängen bis zum Ende des Mittelalters (Urban-Taschenbücher; Geschichte der christlichen Orden), Stuttgart 2018, Kohlhammer, 301 S. / Abb., € 26,00. (Kai Hering, Dresden) Linde, Cornelia (Hrsg.), Making and Breaking the Rules. Discussion, Implementation, and Consequences of Dominican Legislation (Studies of the German Historical Institute London), Oxford / New York 2018, Oxford University Press, XII u. 438 S. / Abb., £ 85,00. (Jens Röhrkasten, Birmingham) Bünz, Enno, Die mittelalterliche Pfarrei. Ausgewählte Studien zum 13.–16. Jahrhundert (Spätmittelalter, Humanismus, Reformation, 96), Tübingen 2017, Mohr Siebeck, IX u. 862 S., € 109,00. (Michele C. Ferrari, Erlangen) Beuckers, Klaus G. / Thomas Schilp (Hrsg.), Fragen, Perspektiven und Aspekte der Erforschung mittelalterlicher Frauenstifte. Beiträge der Abschlusstagung des Essener Arbeitskreises für die Erforschung des Frauenstifts (Essener Forschungen zum Frauenstift, 15), Essen 2018, Klartext, 364 S. / Abb., € 32,00. (Helmut Flachenecker, Würzburg) Schöller, Bettina, Zeiten der Erinnerung. Muri und die Habsburger im Mittelalter (Murenser Monografien, 2), Zürich 2018, Chronos, 191 S. / Abb., € 38,00. (Bruno Meier, Baden (CH)) Mandry, Julia, Armenfürsorge, Hospitäler und Bettel in Thüringen in Spätmittelalter und Reformation (1300 – 1600) (Quellen und Forschungen zu Thüringen im Zeitalter der Reformation, 10), Wien / Köln / Weimar 2018, Böhlau, 1052 S. / Abb., € 125,00. (Stefan Michel, Leipzig) Roth, Stefan, Geldgeschichte und Münzpolitik im Herzogtum Braunschweig-Lüneburg im Spätmittelalter, 2 Bde., Teil 1: Die Rechnungsbücher der Braunschweiger Münzstätte; Teil 2: Geldgeschichte und Münzkatalog (Veröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission für Niedersachsen und Bremen, 293 bzw. 294), Göttingen 2018, Wallstein, 292 S. / Abb., € 19,90 bzw. 717 S. / Abb., € 49,00. (Manfred Mehl, Hamburg) Föller, Carola, Königskinder. Erziehung am Hof Ludwigs IX. des Heiligen von Frankreich (Beihefte zum Archiv für Kulturgeschichte, 88), Wien / Köln / Weimar 2018, Böhlau, 252 S., € 50,00. (Benjamin Müsegades, Heidelberg) Das Urbar des Hochstifts Augsburg von 1316, bearb. v. Thaddäus Steiner (Veröffentlichungen der Schwäbischen Forschungsstelle Augsburg der Kommission für Bayerische Landesgeschichte bei der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Schwäbischen Forschungsgemeinschaft. Reihe 5a: Urbare, 4), Augsburg 2019, Wißner, VIII u. 168 S., € 19,80. (Wolfgang Wüst, Erlangen) Just, Thomas / Kathrin Kininger / Andrea Sommerlechner / Herwig Weigl (Hrsg.), Privilegium maius. Autopsie, Kontext und Karriere der Fälschungen Rudolfs IV. von Österreich (Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung, 69; Mitteilungen des Österreichischen Staatsarchivs, Sonderband 15), Wien / Köln / Weimar 2018, Böhlau, 388 S. / Abb., € 70,00. (Patrick Fiska, Wien) Wolfinger, Lukas, Die Herrschaftsinszenierung Rudolfs IV. von Österreich. Strategien – Publikum – Rezeption (Symbolische Kommunikation in der Vormoderne), Wien / Köln / Weimar 2018, Böhlau, 924 S. / Abb., € 110,00. (Benjamin Müsegades, Heidelberg) Brachthäuser, Urs, Der Kreuzzug gegen Mahdiya 1390. Konstruktionen eines Ereignisses im spätmittelterlichen Mediterraneum (Mittelmeerstudien, 14), Paderborn 2017, Fink / Schöningh, 822 S., € 99,00. (Georg Jostkleigrewe, Halle) Pilat, Liviu / Ovidiu Cristea, The Ottoman Threat and Crusading on the Eastern Border of Christendom during the 15th Century (East Central and Eastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 450 – 1450, 48), Leiden / Boston 2018, Brill, VIII u. 337 S. / Abb., € 174,00. (Thomas Woelki, Berlin) Dümling, Sebastian, Träume der Einfachheit. Gesellschaftsbeobachtungen in den Reformschriften des 15. Jahrhunderts (Historische Studien, 511), Husum 2017, Matthiesen, 250 S., € 39,00. (Birgit Studt, Freiburg i. Br.) Buondelmonti, Christoforo, Description of the Aegean and Other Islands. Copied, with Supplemental Material, by Henricus Martellus Germanus. A Facsimile of the Manuscript at the James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota, hrsg. u. übers. v. Evelyn Edson, New York 2018, Italica Press, X u. 190 S. / Abb., $ 100,00. (Ingrid Baumgärtner, Kassel) Schneider, Joachim, Eberhard Windeck und sein „Buch von Kaiser Sigmund“. Studien zu Entstehung, Funktion und Verbreitung einer Königschronik im 15. Jahrhundert (Geschichtliche Landeskunde, 73), Stuttgart 2018, Steiner, 369 S. / Abb., € 62,00. (Gerhard Fouquet, Kiel) The London Customs Accounts. 24 Henry VI (1445/46), hrsg. v. Stuart Jenks (Quellen und Darstellungen zur Hansischen Geschichte. Neue Folge, 74), Köln / Weimar / Wien 2018, Böhlau, LXIII u. 407 S., € 60,00. (Harm von Seggern, Kiel) Pietro Montes „Collectanea“. The Arms, Armour and Fighting Techniques of a Fifteenth-Century Soldier, hrsg. u. übers. v. Jeffrey L. Forgeng, Woodbridge 2018, The Boydell Press, VII u. 313 S. / Abb., £ 60,00. (Patrick Leiske, Heidelberg) Sander-Faes, Stephan, Europas habsburgisches Jahrhundert. 1450 – 1550 (Geschichte kompakt), Darmstadt 2018, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 160 S. / Abb., € 19,95. (Thomas Winkelbauer, Wien) Helmrath, Johannes / Ursula Kocher / Andrea Sieber (Hrsg.), Maximilians Welt. Kaiser Maximilian im Spannungsfeld zwischen Innovation und Tradition (Berliner Mittelalter- und Frühneuzeitforschung, 22), Göttingen 2018, V&amp;R unipress, 300 S. / Abb., € 45,00. (Nadja Krajicek, Innsbruck) Krajicek, Nadja, Frauen in Notlagen. Suppliken an Maximilian I. als Selbstzeugnisse (Quelleneditionen des Instituts für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung, 17), Wien 2018, Böhlau, 198 S. / Abb., € 39,00. (Manfred Hollegger, Graz) Sebastiani, Valentina, Johann Froben, Printer of Basel. A Biographical Profile and Catalogue of His Editions (Library of the Written Word, 65; The Handpress World, 50), Leiden / Boston 2018, Brill, XII u. 830 S. / Abb., € 215,00. (Charlotte Kempf, Stuttgart) Sharman, Jason C., Empires of the Weak. The Real Story of European Expansion and the Creation of the New World Order, Princeton / Oxford 2019, Princeton University Press, XII u. 196 S., £ 22,00. (Wolfgang Reinhard, Freiburg i. Br.) MacDougall, Philip, Islamic Seapower during the Age of Fighting Sail, Woodbridge 2017, The Boydell Press, XVII u. 241 S. / Abb., £ 65,00. (Stefan Hanß, Manchester) Head, Randolph C., Making Archives in Early Modern Europe. Proof, Information, and Political Record-Keeping, 1400 – 1700, Cambridge [u. a.] 2019, Cambridge University Press, XVII u. 348 S. / Abb., £ 90,00. (Markus Friedrich, Hamburg) Keller, Vera / Anna M. Roos / Elizabeth Yale (Hrsg.), Archival Afterlives. Life, Death, and Knowledge-Making in Early Modern British Scientific and Medical Archives (Scientific and Learned Cultures and Their Institutions, 23), Leiden / Boston 2018, Brill, XI u. 276 S. / Abb., € 105,00. (Markus Friedrich, Hamburg) Jaumann, Herbert / Gideon Stiening (Hrsg.), Neue Diskurse der Gelehrtenkultur in der Frühen Neuzeit. Ein Handbuch, Berlin / Boston 2016, de Gruyter, XXIII u. 877 S., € 219,00. (Marian Füssel, Göttingen) Reinalter, Helmut, Freimaurerei, Politik und Gesellschaft. Die Wirkungsgeschichte des diskreten Bundes, Wien / Köln / Weimar 2018, Böhlau, 255 S., € 20,00. (Joachim Bauer, Jena) Jarzebowski, Claudia, Kindheit und Emotion. Kinder und ihre Lebenswelten in der europäischen Frühen Neuzeit, Berlin / Boston 2018, de Gruyter Oldenbourg, VIII u. 343 S. / Abb., € 89,95. (Christina Antenhofer, Salzburg) Bepler, Jill / Svante Norrhem (Hrsg.), Telling Objects. Contextualizing the Role of the Consort in Early Modern Europe (Wolfenbütteler Forschungen, 153), Wiesbaden 2018, Harrassowitz in Kommission, 269 S. / Abb., € 68,00. (Melanie Greinert, Kiel) Gantet, Claire / Christine Lebeau, Le Saint-Empire. 1500 – 1800 (Collection U: Histoire), Malakoff 2018, Armand Colin, 270 S. / graph. Darst., € 27,00. (Guido Braun, Mülhausen / Mulhouse) Willasch, Friederike, Verhandlungen, Gespräche, Briefe. Savoyisch-französische Fürstenheiraten in der Frühen Neuzeit (Beihefte der Francia, 85), Ostfildern 2018, Thorbecke, 344 S., € 45,00. (Matthias Schnettger, Mainz) Del Soldato, Eva / Andrea Rizzi (Hrsg.), City, Court, Academy. Language Choice in Early Modern Italy, London / New York, Routledge 2018, IX u. 228 S., £ 105,00. (Bettina Pfotenhauer, München) Lobenwein, Elisabeth / Martin Scheutz / Alfred St. Weiß (Hrsg.), Bruderschaften als multifunktionale Dienstleister der Frühen Neuzeit in Zentraleuropa (Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung, 70), Wien 2018, Böhlau, 548 S. / Abb., € 90,00. (Patrick Schmidt, Rostock) Bergerfurth, Yvonne, Die Bruderschaften der Kölner Jesuiten 1576 bis 1773 (Studien zur Kölner Kirchengeschichte, 45), Siegburg 2018, Schmitt, 438 S., € 34,90. (Hans-Wolfgang Bergerhausen, Würzburg) Walter, Philipp, Universität und Landtag (1500 – 1700). Akademische Landstandschaft im Spannungsfeld von reformatorischer Lehre, landesherrlicher Instrumentalisierung und ständischer Solidarität (Quellen und Forschungen zu Thüringen im Zeitalter der Reformation, 8), Wien / Köln / Weimar 2018, Böhlau, 1093 S., € 125,00. (Bernhard Homa, Stade) Kikuchi, Yuta, Hamburgs Ostsee- und Mitteleuropahandel 1600 – 1800. Warenaustausch und Hinterlandnetzwerke (Wirtschafts- und Sozialhistorische Studien, 20), Köln / Weimar / Wien 2018, Böhlau, 426 S. / Abb., € 65,00. (Mark Häberlein, Bamberg) Hoppe, Peter / Daniel Schläppi / Nathalie Büsser / Thomas Meier, Universum Kleinstadt. Die Stadt Zug und ihre Untertanen im Spiegel der Protokolle von Stadtrat und Gemeinde (1471 – 1798) (Beiträge zur Zuger Geschichte, 18), Zürich 2018, Chronos in Kommission, 320 S. / Abb., € 38,00. (Volker Reinhardt, Fribourg) Griffin, Carl J. / Briony McDonagh (Hrsg.), Remembering Protest in Britain since 1500. Memory, Materiality and the Landscape, Cham 2018, Palgrave Macmillan, XIV u. 253 S. / Abb., € 96,29. (Georg Eckert, Wuppertal / Potsdam) Queckbörner, Boris, Englands Exodus. Form und Funktion einer Vorstellung göttlicher Erwählung in Tudor-England, Bielefeld 2017, transcript, 596 S. / Abb., € 49,99. (Andreas Pečar, Halle a. d. S.) Fleming, Gillian B., Juana I. Legitimacy and Conflict in Sixteenth-Century Castile (Queenship and Power), Cham 2018, Palgrave Macmillan, XXI 356 S. / Abb., € 103,99. (Pauline Puppel, Berlin) Heidenreich, Benjamin, Ein Ereignis ohne Namen? Zu den Vorstellungen des „Bauernkriegs“ von 1525 in den Schriften der „Aufständischen“ und in der zeitgenössischen Geschichtsschreibung (Quellen und Forschungen zur Agrargeschichte, 9), Berlin / Boston 2019, de Gruyter Oldenbourg, IX u. 350 S., € 99,95. (Wiebke Voigt, Dresden) Lehmann, Sarah, Jrdische Pilgrimschafft und Himmlische Burgerschafft. Leid und Trost in frühneuzeitlichen Leichenpredigten (The Early Modern World, 1), Göttingen 2019, V&amp;R unipress, 374 S. / Abb., € 50,00. (Volker Leppin, Tübingen) Hanß, Stefan, Lepanto als Ereignis. Dezentrierende Geschichte‍(n) der Seeschlacht von Lepanto (1571) (Berliner Mittelalter- und Frühneuzeit-Forschung, 21), Göttingen 2017, Vandenhoeck &amp; Ruprecht, 710 S. / Abb., € 85,00. (Cornel Zwierlein, Berlin) Hanß, Stefan, Die materielle Kultur der Seeschlacht von Lepanto (1571). Materialität, Medialität und die historische Produktion eines Ereignisses, 2 Teilbde. (Istanbuler Texte und Studien, 38.1 u. 38.2), Würzburg 2017, Ergon in Kommission, 1006 S. / Abb., € 148,00. (Cornel Zwierlein, Berlin) Nagel, Ulrich, Zwischen Dynastie und Staatsräson. Die habsburgischen Botschafter in Wien und Madrid am Beginn des Dreißigjährigen Krieges (Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Europäische Geschichte Mainz. Abteilung für Universalgeschichte, 247), Göttingen 2018, Vandenhoeck &amp; Ruprecht, 464 S., € 80,00. (Hillard von Thiessen, Rostock) Mitchell, Silvia Z., Queen, Mother, and Stateswoman. Mariana of Austria and the Gouvernment of Spain, University Park Pennsylvania 2019, The Pennsylvania State University Press, XII u. 293 S. / Abb., $ 84,95. (Katrin Keller, Wien) Krause, Oliver, Die Variabilität frühneuzeitlicher Staatlichkeit. Die niederländische „Staats“-Formierung der Statthalterlosen Epoche (1650 – 1672) als interkontinentales Regiment (Beiträge zur Europäischen Überseegeschichte, 105), Stuttgart 2018, Steiner, 529 S., € 76,00. (Johannes Arndt, Münster) Stevens, Ralph, Protestant Pluralism. The Reception of the Toleration Act, 1689 – 1720 (Studies in Modern British Religious History, 37), Woodbridge / Rochester 2018, The Boydell Press, XIV u. 201 S., £ 65,00. (Frouke Veenstra-Vis, Groningen) Mitchell, A. Wess, The Grand Strategy of the Habsburg Empire, Princeton / Oxford 2018, Princeton University Press, XIV u. 403 S. / Abb., $ 27,00. (Simon Karstens, Trier) Pohlig, Matthias / Michael Schaich (Hrsg.), The War of the Spanish Succession. New Perspectives (Studies of the German Historical Institute London), Oxford 2018, Oxford University Press, IX u. 509 S. / Abb., £ 85,00. (Anuschka Tischer, Würzburg) Vollhardt, Friedrich, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing. Epoche und Werk, Göttingen 2018, Wallstein, 490 S. / Abb., € 29,90. (Michael Maurer, Jena) Walliss, John, The Bloody Code in England and Wales, 1760 – 1830 (World Histories of Crime, Culture and Violence), Cham 2018, Palgrave Macmillan, XXIII u. 176 S. / graph. Darst., € 85,59. (Benjamin Seebröker, Dresden) „Die Schlesier im Ganzen taugen wahrlich nichts!“ Johann Gustav Gottlieb Büschings Briefe an seine Braut. An der Wiege der Breslauer Germanistik, hrsg., komm. u. mit einem Vorwort versehen v. Krzysztof Żarski / Natalia Żarska (Schlesische Grenzgänger, 10), Leipzig 2018, Leipziger Universitätsverlag, 575 S., € 49,00. (Michael Maurer, Jena)

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"Buchbesprechungen." Zeitschrift für Historische Forschung 47, no.1 (January1, 2020): 79–182. http://dx.doi.org/10.3790/zhf.47.1.79.

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Crailsheim, Eberhard / Maria D. Elizalde (Hrsg.), The Representation of External Threats. From the Middle Ages to the Modern World (History of Warfare, 123), Leiden / Boston 2019, Brill, XV u. 466 S., € 127,00. (Wolfgang Reinhard, Freiburg i. Br.) Höfele, Andreas / Beate Kellner (Hrsg.), Natur in politischen Ordnungsentwürfen der Vormoderne. Unter Mitwirkung von Christian Kaiser, Paderborn 2018, Fink, 224 S., € 59,00. (Stefano Saracino, Erfurt / München) Jütte, Robert / Romedio Schmitz-Esser (Hrsg.), Handgebrauch. Geschichten von der Hand aus dem Mittelalter und der Frühen Neuzeit, Paderborn 2019, Fink, 320 S. / Abb., € 44,90. (Barbara Stollberg-Rilinger, Berlin / Münster) Tomaini, Thea (Hrsg.), Dealing with the Dead. Mortality and Community in Medieval and Early Modern Europe (Explorations in Medieval Culture, 5), Leiden / Boston 2018, Brill, XI u. 449 S. / Abb., € 135,00. (Ralf-Peter Fuchs, Essen) Lahtinen, Anu / Mia Korpiola (Hrsg.), Dying Prepared in Medieval and Early Modern Northern Europe (The Northern World, 82), Leiden / Boston 2018, Brill, IX u. 211 S. / Abb., € 85,00. (Ralf-Peter Fuchs, Essen) Dyer, Christopher / Erik Thoen / Tom Williamson (Hrsg.), Peasants and Their Fields. The Rationale of Open-Field Agriculture, c. 700 - 1800 (CORN Publication Series, 16), Turnhout 2018, Brepols, X u. 275 S. / Abb., € 84,00. (Werner Troßbach, Fulda) Andermann, Kurt / Nina Gallion (Hrsg.), Weg und Steg. Aspekte des Verkehrswesens von der Spätantike bis zum Ende des Alten Reiches (Kraichtaler Kolloquien, 11), Ostfildern 2018, Thorbecke, 262 S. / Abb., € 29,00. (Sascha Bütow, Magdeburg) Jaspert, Nikolas / Christian A. Neumann / Marco di Branco (Hrsg.), Ein Meer und seine Heiligen. Hagiographie im mittelalterlichen Mediterraneum (Mittelmeerstudien, 18), Paderborn 2018, Fink / Schöningh, 405 S. / Abb., € 148,00. (Michael North, Greifswald) Müller, Harald (Hrsg.), Der Verlust der Eindeutigkeit. Zur Krise päpstlicher Autorität im Kampf um die Cathedra Petri (Schriften des Historischen Kollegs, Kolloquien 95), Berlin / Boston 2017, de Gruyter Oldenbourg, X u. 244 S. / graph. Darst., € 69,95. (Thomas Wetzstein, Eichstätt) Ehrensperger, Alfred, Geschichte des Gottesdienstes in Zürich Stadt und Land im Spätmittelalter und in der frühen Reformation bis 1531 (Geschichte des Gottesdienstes in den evangelisch-reformierten Kirchen der Deutschschweiz, 5), Zürich 2019, Theologischer Verlag Zürich, 814 S., € 76,00. (Andreas Odenthal, Bonn) Demurger, Alain, Die Verfolgung der Templer. Chronik einer Vernichtung. 1307 - 1314. Aus dem Französischen v. Anne Leube / Wolf H. Leube, München 2017, Beck, 408 S. / Karten, € 26,95. (Jochen Burgtorf, Fullerton) Caudrey, Philip J., Military Society and the Court of Chivalry in the Age of the Hundred Years War (Warfare in History), Woodbridge / Rochester 2019, The Boydell Press, XII u. 227 S., £ 60,00. (Stefan G. Holz, Heidelberg) Hesse, Christian / Regula Schmid / Roland Gerber (Hrsg.), Eroberung und Inbesitznahme. Die Eroberung des Aargaus 1415 im europäischen Vergleich / Conquest and Occupation. The 1415 Seizure of the Aargau in European Perspective, Ostfildern 2017, Thorbecke, VII u. 320 S. / Abb., € 45,00. (Rainer Hugener, Zürich) Krafft, Otfried, Landgraf Ludwig I. von Hessen (1402 - 1458). Politik und historiographische Rezeption (Veröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission für Hessen, 88), Marburg 2018, Historische Kommission für Hessen, XII u. 880 S. / Abb., € 48,00. (Uwe Schirmer, Jena) Neustadt, Cornelia, Kommunikation im Konflikt. König Erik VII. von Dänemark und die Städte im südlichen Ostseeraum (1423 - 1435) (Europa im Mittelalter, 32), Berlin / Boston 2018, de Gruyter, XV u. 540 S. / Abb., € 109,05. (Carsten Jahnke, Kopenhagen) Kekewich, Margaret, Sir John Fortescue and the Governance of England, Woodbridge / Rochester 2018, The Boydell Press, XXIII u. 367 S. / Abb., £ 60,00. (Maree Shirota, Heidelberg) MacGregor, Arthur, Naturalists in the Field. Collecting, Recording and Preserving the Natural World from the Fifteenth to the Twenty-First Century (Emergence of Natural History, 2), Leiden / London 2018, Brill, XXIX u. 999 S. / Abb., € 270,00. (Bettina Dietz, Hongkong) Jones, Pamela M. / Barbara Wisch / Simon Ditchfield (Hrsg.), A Companion to Early Modern Rome, 1492 - 1692 (Brill’s Companions to European History, 17), Leiden / Boston 2019, Brill, XXIII u. 629 S., € 171,00. (Wolfgang Reinhard, Freiburg i. Br.) Frömmer, Judith, Italien im Heiligen Land. Typologien frühneuzeitlicher Gründungsnarrative, [Göttingen] 2018, Konstanz University Press, 402 S. / Abb., € 49,00. (Cornel Zwierlein, Berlin) De Benedictis, Angela, Neither Disobedients nor Rebels. Lawful Resistance in Early Modern Italy (Viella History, Art and Humanities Collection, 6), Rom 2018, Viella, 230 S., € 55,00. (Wolfgang Reinhard, Freiburg i. Br.) Raggio, Osvaldo, Feuds and State Formation, 1550 - 1700. The Backcountry of the Republic of Genoa (Early Modern History: Society and Culture), Cham 2018, Palgrave Macmillan, XXV u. 316 S., € 85,49. (Magnus Ressel, Frankfurt a. M.) Ingram, Kevin, Converso Non-Conformism in Early Modern Spain. Bad Blood and Faith from Alonso de Cartagena to Diego Velázquez, Cham 2018, Palgrave Macmillan, XX u. 370 S. / Abb., € 85,59. (Joël Graf, Bern) Kirschvink, Dominik, Die Revision als Rechtsmittel im Alten Reich (Schriften zur Rechtsgeschichte, 184), Berlin 2019, Duncker &amp; Humblot, 230 S., € 74,90. 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Jahrhundert (Hallesche Forschungen, 47), Halle a. d. S. 2017, Verlag der Franckeschen Stiftungen, VI u. 265 S. / Abb., € 56,00. (Martin Gierl, Göttingen) Geffarth, Renko / Markus Meumann / Holger Zaunstöck (Hrsg.), Kampf um die Aufklärung? Institutionelle Konkurrenzen und intellektuelle Vielfalt im Halle des 18. Jahrhunderts, Halle a. d. S. 2018, Mitteldeutscher Verlag, 334 S., € 50,00. (Martin Gierl, Göttingen) Giro d’Italia. Die Reiseberichte des bayerischen Kurprinzen Karl Albrecht (1715/16). Eine historisch-kritische Edition, hrsg. v. Andrea Zedler / Jörg Zedler (Beihefte zum Archiv für Kulturgeschichte, 90), Wien / Köln / Weimar 2019, Böhlau, 694 S. / Abb., € 90,00. (Michael Maurer, Jena) Backerra, Charlotte, Wien und London, 1727 - 1735. Internationale Beziehungen im frühen 18. Jahrhundert (Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für europäische Geschichte Mainz, 253), Göttingen 2018, Vandenhoeck &amp; Ruprecht, 474 S., € 80,00. 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Seale, Kirsten. "Iain Sinclair's Excremental Narratives." M/C Journal 8, no.1 (February1, 2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.5204/mcj.2317.

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This consideration of British poet, novelist, and critic Iain Sinclair’s ‘bad’ writing begins at the summit of Beckton Alp, a pile of waste in London’s east that has been reconstituted as recreational space. For Sinclair, Beckton Alp functions as a totem signifying the pervasive regulatory influence of Panopticism in contemporary urban culture. It shares the Panopticon’s ‘see/being seen dyad’, which is delineated thus by Michel Foucault in Discipline and Punish: In the peripheric ring [which in this case acts as an analogue for London] one is seen, without ever seeing; in the central tower [for our purposes, Beckton Alp], one sees everything without being seen. (201) In his most recent novel, Dining on Stones (or, The Middle Ground), the prospect from Beckton Alp offers Sinclair the following image of London: Leaning on a creosoted railing London makes sense. There is a pattern, a working design. And there’s a word for it too: Obscenery. Blight. Stuttering movement. The distant river. The time membrane dissolves, in such a way that the viewer becomes the thing he is looking at. (190) The city, following Michel de Certeau, can be read as a text from Beckton Alp, one that appears intelligible, one that ‘makes sense’ (92). But what “sense” is the reader to make of Sinclair’s vision of London, a London characterised by this intriguing (and typically Sinclairean) neologism, obscenery? Obscenery’s etymological origins in the word ‘obscene’ suggest that it is indecent, unruly, offensive. It would seem to encompass everything that hegemonic culture would prefer to keep off-stage and unseen, everything that it considers ‘bad.’ Yet as Sinclair makes clear, it is hardly hidden—it can be seen from the Alp. By all accounts, obscenery proves to be the completely visible manifestation of what is normally segregated, managed and disposed of by disciplinary apparatuses, such as the Panoptic schema, which organise and supervise urban space. In summary, obscenery contends the regulatory power of Panopticism by being visible, obscenely so. Sinclair is careful to avoid a dialectic positing obscenery as the disordered antinomy to the pattern of hegemonic order. Instead, obscenery problematises the differentiations demarcating ‘good’ and ‘bad’ culture. Sinclair’s poiesis also blurs the boundaries between divergent spheres of culture as it oscillates between small press publishing and the mass market. His mimeographed chapbooks and limited edition hardcovers have for the major part of his career been conceived, produced, and disseminated outside the parameters of mainstream culture. An affiliation with the avant-garde British Poetry Revival indicates Sinclair’s dedication to alternative publishing, as does the existence of his own imprints: the punningly named horz commerz, and the Albion Village Press. But his mainstream publications (including Dining on Stones, which was released by multinational publishing house Penguin) complicate this position because although he is published and circulated within the sights of hegemonic literary culture, and therefore subject to the gaze of the Panopticon, Sinclair rejects hegemonic expectations about what comprises literature. He exploits written language, a tool licensed by the Panopticon, for unlicensed praxis. Identifying Sinclair’s cultural production as a type of textual obscenery, or ‘bad’ writing proposes an alternative model of cultural production, one that enables the creative practitioner to loosen the panoptic bonds with which Foucault pinions the individual and productively negotiate the archetypal struggle faced in a capitalist political economy: the conflict between artistic integrity and commercial imperative. In a sense, Sinclair and his circle of collaborators constitute a modern day la bohème—a league of artistic and literary putschists conspiring against the established order of cultural production, distribution, and consumption. As Sinclair commented in an interview: There’s no anxiety. Most of the stuff I have done didn’t have to win anybody’s approval. For me, there wasn’t that question of ‘How do I get published?’ that seems to preoccupy writers now. I used to publish myself. (Jeffries) For Sinclair, hegemonic culture is marching acquiescently, mindlessly to the ‘military/industrial two-step. That old standard… YES was the word.’ (Sinclair, London Orbital 4) If ‘yes’ is the mantra of this type of (false) consciousness, then Sinclair’s contrary creations are asserting a politics of ‘no.’ Sinclair’s refusal to accede to hegemonic attitudes regarding what is ‘good’ writing points to a deliberate decision to preserve what Herbert Marcuse terms ‘artistic alienation’ (Sinclair 63). According to Marcuse, artistic alienation, as distinct from traditional Marxist notions of alienation, should be encouraged in order to preserve the integrity of the work of art as something that has the power to rupture reality. In late era capitalism, reality is the totality of commodity culture, thus art must remain antagonistic to the ubiquity of the commodity form. Or, in Marcuse’s words, ‘art has …magic power only as the power of negation. It can speak its own language only as long as the images are alive which refuse and refute the established order’ (65). Within the panoptic schema, the disciplinary apparatus of capitalism, refusal, or refuse, is equivalent to obscenery. Like raw sewage washing up on the beach, or a split garbage bag lying uncollected in the street, Sinclair’s writing is matter out-of-place. If Panopticism, as Foucault theorises, is to efficiently and effectively implement discipline via real and imagined networks of surveillance that shift constantly between operations extrinsic and intrinsic to the subject, it does not necessarily prevent heterogeneous, transgressive, or subversive practice from emerging. However, it will, by means of this surveillance, draw attention to these practices, classify and segregate them, apply pejorative labels such as ‘bad’, ‘useless’, ‘harmful’, and relegate them to a social or spatial sphere outside the realm of the normative tastes and standards. In this process lies the Panopticon’s vast potential to devise, standardise, and regulate patterns of production and consumption. Practices and production that do not conform to hegemonic conventions are deemed aberrant, and rendered invisible. In a capitalist political economy, where governing institutions and operations function as extensions of systems predicated upon the fetishism of commodities, regulating patterns of consumption—by deciding what can and can’t be seen—imposes control. According to the logic of scopophilic culture, to be ‘unseen,’ by choice or otherwise, necessarily restricts consumption. In this manner, the Panopticon reinforces its role as arbiter of public taste. Obscenery’s visibility, however, rejects panoptic classification. It resists the panoptic systems that police cultural production, not by remaining hidden, or Other, but by declaring its presence. Unlike the commodity, which in its conformity is seamlessly assimilated into consumer culture, obscenery draws attention. Beckton Alp, a sanitised pile of waste rendered useful, palatable, is, in contrast, an example of obscenery averted (see endnote). As Marx explains, for a product to exist fully it must be consumed (91). A book becomes a product only when it is read. Writing that is designed to refuse the act of reading is perverse according to any schema of cultural logic, but particularly according to the logic of an economy driven by consumption. This refusal resonates with particular force within a capitalist schema of cultural production because it is fundamentally contrary to the process of commodification. Sinclair’s texts deny easy, uncritical consumption and subsequently cause a blockage in the process of commodification. In this manner, Sinclair contends the logos of capitalist alchemy. A book that resists being easily read, but is still visible to mainstream culture, constitutes a type of obscenery. Situating Sinclair’s poiesis within the domain of obscenery enables an understanding of why his texts have been judged by some critics and readers as ‘bad,’ difficult, inaccessible, impenetrable, even ‘unreadable’. Practitioners of counter-cultural and sub-cultural art and literature traditionally protect their minoritarian status and restrict access to their work by consciously constructing texts which might be considered ‘sh*t’; in other words, creating something that is deemed excremental, or ‘bad’ according to hegemonic tastes and standards. They create something that inhibits smooth digestion, something that causes a malfunction in the order of consumption. Stylistically, Sinclair employs a number of linguistic and formal devices to repulse the reader. Unrelenting verbiage and extreme parataxis are two such contrivances, as this exemplary excerpt from Dining on Stones illustrates: HEALTHY BOWELS? No problem in that department. Quite the reverse. Eyes: like looking out of week-old milk bottles. Ears clogged and sticky nose broken. But bowels ticked like a German motor: Stephen X, age unknown: writer. Marine exile. His walk, the colonnade. Wet suits for scuba divers. Yellowed wedding dresses. Black god franchises. Fast food. NO CASH KEPT ON PREMISES. The shops, beneath the hulk of the Ocean Queen flats, dealt in negatives, prohibitions – fear. They kept no stock beyond instantly forgotten memorabilia, concrete floors. Stephen releases a clutch of bad wind. (Sinclair 308) Sinclair’s writing constructs linguistic heterotopias that ‘desiccate speech, stop words in their tracks, contest the very possibility of grammar’ (Foucault, Archaeology xix). His language is clipped, elliptical, arrhythmic. In fact, Sinclair’s prose often doesn’t resemble prose; formally and syntactically, it is more aligned with poetry. It is peppered with paradoxical conceits—‘forgotten memorabilia’—which negate meaning and amplify the inscrutability of his words. His imagery is unexpected, discordant, frequently unsettling, as is his unpredictable register which veers from colloquialisms (‘No problem in that department’; Sinclair 308) to more formal, literary modes of expression (‘Stephen X, age unknown: writer’; Sinclair 308). Sinclair also alienates the reader through the use of digressive narrative, which in its Blakean insistence on cyclical shapes resists the linear structure associated with the shape of rational imagination. In terms of the economy of a teleological narrative, Sinclair’s storytelling in novels like Dining on Stones is wasteful in its diversions. His fictions and non-fictions contain characters and events that are incidental to what only occasionally resembles a plot. The apotheosis of the urge to contend linear forms of narrative is chronicled in Sinclair’s 2002 book London Orbital, a navigation of the M25 that as a circuitous journey has neither defined point of origin nor a locatable terminus. Sinclair’s novels, criticism, poetry, films constitute a hermeneutic circle, insisting that you have a working knowledge of the other texts in order to decipher the single text, and the body of work gives meaning to each discrete text. Acquiring Sinclair’s recondite code—which those who are cognisant with his style are well aware—is not a task for the uncommitted. The reader must assume the role of detective tracking down his poetry in second-hand bookshops. Obscure references that saturate the page must be researched. To read and understand Sinclair requires what sociologist Pierre Bourdieu has called ‘cultural competence’ (2). Bourdieu’s ideas on taste and consumption provide a framework for understanding Sinclair’s textual allegiances, his affinity for other types of textual obscenery—unsanctioned graffiti, small magazine poetry—which are also derided as ‘sh*t’, as ‘bad’ writing by those who have not acquired the cultural competence necessary to understand their coded information. There is a self-reflexive joke contained in the title Dining on Stones. After all, it is a novel that constantly urges the reader to swallow indigestible text and unsavoury subject matter. Sinclair’s writing continually forces our attentions back to the purlieus of urban culture, to everything that the centrifugal forces of Panopticism have driven to the periphery: social inequality, marginal spatial practice, refuse, sh*t. Sinclair’s textual obscenery is perceived as ‘bad’, as excremental because it denies mainstream literary audiences the satisfaction of uncomplicated, uncritical consumption. According to the restrictive logic of late era capitalism, Sinclair’s slippery, complex, inaccessible narratives are perverse. But they are also the source of perverse pleasure for those who refuse the inhibitions of conformity. Endnote Visual technology in the service of surveillance has been steadily integrated into the everyday, and, by virtue of its ubiquity, has become ‘unseen.’ Similar to the panoptic technologies described by Foucault, Beckton Alp, ‘a considerable event that nobody notices,’ (Sinclair, Dining on Stones, 179) is also assimilated into the urban landscape. References Bourdieu, Pierre. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. London: Routledge, 2003. De Certeau, Michel. The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley: U of California P, 1988. Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Trans. Alan Sheridan. London: Penguin, 1977. The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. London and New York: Routledge, 2002. Jeffries, Stuart. “On the Road.” The Guardian Online 24 Apr. 2004. 28 Apr. 2004 http://books.guardian.co.uk/departments/generalfiction/story/0,,1201856,00.html>. Marcuse, Herbert. One-Dimensional Man. London & New York: Routledge, 2002. Marx, Karl. Grundrisse: Foundations of the Critique of Political Economy (Rough Draft). Trans. Martin Nicolaus. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1973. Sinclair, Iain. Dining on Stones (or, the Middle Ground). London: Hamish Hamilton, 2004. Sinclair, Iain. London Orbital. London: Granta, 2002. Citation reference for this article MLA Style Seale, Kirsten. "Iain Sinclair's Excremental Narratives." M/C Journal 8.1 (2005). echo date('d M. Y'); ?> <http://journal.media-culture.org.au/0502/03-seale.php>. APA Style Seale, K. (Feb. 2005) "Iain Sinclair's Excremental Narratives," M/C Journal, 8(1). Retrieved echo date('d M. Y'); ?> from <http://journal.media-culture.org.au/0502/03-seale.php>.

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"Buchbesprechungen." Zeitschrift für Historische Forschung: Volume 46, Issue 2 46, no.2 (April1, 2019): 289–406. http://dx.doi.org/10.3790/zhf.46.2.289.

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43

Dang-Anh, Mark. "Excluding Agency." M/C Journal 23, no.6 (November29, 2020). http://dx.doi.org/10.5204/mcj.2725.

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Abstract:

Introduction Nun habe ich Euch genug geschrieben, diesen Brief wenn sei [sic] lesen würden, dann würde ich den Genickschuß bekommen.Now I have written you enough, this letter if they would read it, I would get the neck shot. (M., all translations from German sources and quotations by the author) When the German soldier Otto M. wrote these lines from Russia to his family on 3 September 1943 during the Second World War, he knew that his war letter would not be subject to the National Socialist censorship apparatus. The letter contains, inter alia, detailed information about the course of the war on the front, troop locations, and warnings about the Nazi regime. M., as he wrote in the letter, smuggled it past the censorship via a “comrade”. As a German soldier, M. was a member of the Volksgemeinschaft—a National Socialist concept that drew a “racist and anti-Semitic borderline” (Wildt 48)—and was thus not socially excluded due to his status. Nevertheless, in the sentence quoted above, M. anticipates possible future consequences of his deviant actions, which would be carried out by “them”—potentially leading to his violent death. This article investigates how social and societal exclusion is brought forth by everyday media practices such as writing letters. After an introduction to the thesis under discussion, I will briefly outline the linguistic research on National Socialism that underlies the approach presented. In the second section, the key concepts of agency and dispositif applied in this work are discussed. This is followed by two sections in which infrastructural and interactional practices of exclusion are analysed. The article closes with some concluding remarks. During the Second World War, Wehrmacht soldiers and their relatives could not write and receive letters that were not potentially subject to controls. Therefore, the blunt openness with which M. anticipated the brutal sanctions of behavioural deviations in the correspondence quoted above was an exception in the everyday practice of war letter communication. This article will thus pursue the following thesis: private communication in war letters was subject to specific discourse conditions under National Socialism, and this brought forth excluding agency, which has two intertwined readings. Firstly, “excluding” is to be understood as an attribute of “agency” in the sense of an acting entity that either is included and potentially excludes or is excluded due to its ascribed agency. For example, German soldiers who actively participated in patriotic service were included in the Volksgemeinschaft. By contrast, Jews or Communists, to name but a few groups that, from the perspective of racist Nazi ideology, did not contribute to the community, were excluded from it. Such excluding agencies are based on specific practices of dispositional arrangement, which I refer to as infrastructural exclusion of agency. Secondly, excluding agency describes a linguistic practice that developed under National Socialism and has an equally stabilising effect on it. Excluding agency means that agents, and hence protagonists, are excluded by means of linguistic mitigation and omission. This second reading emphasises practices of linguistic construction of agency in interaction, which is described as interactional exclusion of agency. In either sense, exclusion is inextricably tied to the notion of agency, which is illustrated in this article by using data from field post letters of the Second World War. Social exclusion, along with its most extreme manifestations under fascism, is both legitimised and carried out predominantly through discursive practices. This includes for the public domain, on the one hand, executive language use such as in laws, decrees, orders, court hearings, and verdicts, and on the other hand, texts such as ideological writings, speeches, radio addresses, folk literature, etc. Linguistic research on National Socialism and its mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion has long focussed on the power of a regulated public use of language that seemed to be shaped by a few protagonists, most notably Hitler and Goebbels (Schlosser; Scholl). More recent works, however, are increasingly devoted to the differentiation of heterogeneous communities of practice, which were primarily established through discursive practices and are manifested accordingly in texts of that time (Horan, Practice). Contrary to a justifiably criticised “exculpation of the speakers” (Sauer 975) by linguistic research, which focusses on language but not on situated, interactional language use, such a perspective is increasingly interested in “discourse in National Socialism, with a particular emphasis on language use in context as a shared, communicative phenomenon” (Horan, Letter 45). To understand the phenomenon of social and societal exclusion, which was constitutive for National Socialism, it is also necessary to analyse those discursive practices of inclusion and exclusion through which the speakers co-constitute everyday life. I will do this by relating the discourse conditions, based on Foucault’s concept of dispositif (Confessions 194), to the agency of the correspondents of war letters, i.e. field post letters. On Agency and Dispositif Agency and dispositif are key concepts for the analysis of social exclusion, because they can be applied to analyse the situated practices of exclusion both in terms of the different capacities for action of various agents, i.e. acting entities, and the inevitably asymmetrical arrangement within which actions are performed. Let me first, very briefly, outline some linguistic conceptions of agency. While Ahearn states that “agency refers to the socioculturally mediated capacity to act” (28) and thus conceives agency as a potential, Duranti understands agency “as the property of those entities (i) that have some degree of control over their own behavior, (ii) whose actions in the world affect other entities’ (and sometimes their own), and (iii) whose actions are the object of evaluation (e.g. in terms of their responsibility for a given outcome)” (453). Deppermann considers agency to be a means of social and situational positioning: “‘agency’ is to capture properties of the subject as agent, that is, its role with respect to the events in which it is involved” (429–30). This is done by linguistic attribution. Following Duranti, this analysis is based on the understanding that agency is established by the ascription of action to an entity which is thereby made or considered accountable for the action. This allows a practice-theoretical reference to Garfinkel’s concept of accountability and identifies agentive practices as “visibly-rational-and-reportable-for-all-practical purposes” (7). The writing of letters in wartime is one such reflexive discursive practice through which agents constitute social reality by means of ascribing agency. The concept of semantic roles (Fillmore; von Polenz), offers another, distinctly linguistic access to agency. By semantic roles, agency in situated interaction is established syntactically and semantically. Put simply, a distinction is made between an Agent, as someone who performs an action, and a Patient, as someone to whom an action occurs (von Polenz 170; semantic roles such as Agent, Patient, Experiencer, etc. are capitalised by convention). Using linguistic data from war letters, this concept is discussed in more detail below. In the following, “field post” is considered as dispositif, by which Foucault means a thoroughly heterogeneous ensemble consisting of discourses, institutions, architectural forms, regulatory decisions, laws, administrative measures, scientific statements, philosophical, moral and philanthropic propositions – in short, the said as much as the unsaid. Such are the elements of the apparatus [dispositif]. The apparatus [dispositif] itself is the system of relations that can be established between these elements. (Foucault, Confessions 194) The English translation of the French “dispositif” as “apparatus” encourages an understanding of dispositif as a rather rigid structure. In contrast, the field post service of the Second World War will be used here to show how such dispositifs enable practices of exclusion or restrict access to practices of inclusion, while these characteristics themselves are in turn established by practices or, as Foucault calls them, procedures (Foucault, Discourse). An important and potentially enlightening notion related to dispositif is that of agencement, which in turn is borrowed from Deleuze and Guattari and was further developed in particular in actor-network theory (Çalışkan and Callon; Gherardi). What Çalışkan and Callon state about markets serves as a general description of agencement, which can be defined as an “arrangement of heterogeneous constituents that deploys the following: rules and conventions; technical devices; metrological systems; logistical infrastructures; texts, discourses and narratives …; technical and scientific knowledge (including social scientific methods), as well as the competencies and skills embodied in living beings” (3). This resembles Foucault’s concept of dispositif (Foucault, Confessions; see above), which “denotes a heterogeneous ensemble of discursive and nondiscursive elements with neither an originary subject not [sic] a determinant causality” (Coté 384). Considered morphosemantically, agencement expresses an important interrelation: in that it is derived from both the French agencer (to construct; to arrange) and agence (agency; cf. Hardie and MacKenzie 58) and is concretised and nominalised by the suffix -ment, agencement elegantly integrates structure and action according to Giddens’s ‘duality of structure’. While this tying aspect certainly contributes to a better understanding of dispositional arrangements and should therefore be considered, agencement, as applied in actor-network theory, emphasises above all “the fact that agencies and arrangements are not separate” (Çalışkan and Callon) and is, moreover, often employed to ascribe agency to material objects, things, media, etc. This approach has proven to be very fruitful for analyses of socio-technical arrangements in actor-network theory and practice theory (Çalışkan and Callon; Gherardi). However, within the presented discourse-oriented study on letter writing and field post in National Socialism, a clear analytical differentiation between agency and arrangement, precisely in order to point out their interrelation, is essential to analyse practices of exclusion. This is why I prefer dispositif to agencement as the analytical concept here. Infrastructural Exclusion of Agency in Field Post Letters In the Second World War, writing letters between the “homeland” and the “frontline” was a fundamental everyday media practice with an estimated total of 30 to 40 billion letters in Germany (Kilian 97). War letters were known as field post (Feldpost), which was processed by the field post service. The dispositif “field post” was, in opposition to the traditional postal service, subject to specific conditions regarding charges, transport, and above all censorship. No transportation costs arose for field post letters up to a weight of 250 grams. Letters could only be sent by or to soldiers with a field post number that encoded the addresses of the field post offices. Only soldiers who were deployed outside the Reich’s borders received a field post number (Kilian 114). Thus, the soldiers were socially included as interactants due to their military status. The entire organisation of the field post was geared towards enabling members of the Volksgemeinschaft to communicatively shape, maintain, and continue their social relationships during the war (Bergerson et al.). Applying Foucault, the dispositif “field post” establishes selection and exclusion mechanisms in which “procedures of exclusion” (Discourse 52) become manifest, two of which are to be related to the field post: “exclusion from discourse” and “scarcity of speaking subjects” (Spitzmüller and Warnke 73). Firstly, “procedures of exclusion ensure that only certain statements can be made in discourse” (Spitzmüller and Warnke 73). This exclusion procedure ought to be implemented by controlling and, ultimately, censoring field post letters. Reviews were carried out by censorship offices (Feldpostprüfstellen), which were military units independent of the field post offices responsible for delivery. Censorship initially focussed on military information. However, “in the course of the war, censorship shifted from a control measure aimed at defence towards a political-ideological review” (Kilian 101). Critical remarks could be legally prosecuted and punished with prison, penitentiary, or death (Kilian 99). Hence, it is assumed that self-censorship played a role not only for public media, such as newspapers, but also for writing private letters (Dodd). As the introductory quotation from Otto M. shows, writers who spread undesirable information in their letters anticipated the harshest consequences. In this respect, randomised censorship—although only a very small proportion of the high volume of mail was actually opened by censors (Kilian)—established a permanent disposition of control that resulted in a potentially discourse-excluding social stratification of private communication. Secondly, the dispositif “field post” was inherently exclusive and excluding, as those who did not belong to the Volksgemeinschaft could not use the service and thus could not acquire agentive capacity. The “scarcity of speaking subjects” (Spitzmüller and Warnke 73) was achieved by restricting participation in the field post system to members of the Volksgemeinschaft. Since agency is based on the most basic prerequisite, namely the ability to act linguistically at all, the mere possibility of exercising agency was infrastructurally restricted by the field post system. Excluding people from “agency-through-language” means excluding them from an “agency of an existential sort” (Duranti 455), which is described here, regarding the field post system, as infrastructural exclusion of agency. Interactional Exclusion of Agency in Field Post Letters In this section, I will elaborate how agency is brought forth interactionally through linguistic means on the basis of data from a field post corpus that was compiled in the project “Linguistic Social History 1933 to 1945” (Kämper). The aim of the project is an actor-based description of discursive practices and patterns at the time of National Socialism, which takes into account the fact that society in the years 1933 to 1945 consisted of heterogeneous communities of practice (Horan, Practice). Letter communication is considered to be an interaction that is characterised by mediated indexicality, accountability, reflexivity, sequentiality, and reciprocity (Dang-Anh) and is performed as situated social practice (Barton and Hall). The corpus of field letters examined here provides access to the everyday communication of members of the ‘integrated society’, i.e. those who were neither high-ranking members of the Nazi apparatus nor exposed to the repressions of the fascist dictatorship. The corpus consists of about 3,500 letters and about 2.5 million tokens. The data were obtained by digitising letter editions using OCR scans and in cooperation with the field post archive of the Museum for Communication Berlin (cf. sources below). We combine qualitative and quantitative methods, the latter providing heuristic indicators for in-depth hermeneutical analysis (Felder; Teubert). We apply corpus linguistic methods such as keyword, collocation and concordance analysis to the digitised full texts in order to analyse the data intersubjectively by means of corpus-based hermeneutic discourse analysis (Dang-Anh and Scholl). However, the selected excerpts of the corpus do not comprise larger data sets or complete sequences, but isolated fragments. Nevertheless, they illustrate the linguistic (non-)constitution of agency and thus distinctively exemplify exclusionary practices in field post letter writing. From a linguistic point of view, the exclusion of actors from action is achieved syntactically and semantically by deagentivisation (Bernárdez; von Polenz 186), as will be shown below. The following lines were written by Albert N. to his sister Johanna S. and are dated 25 June 1941, shortly after the beginning of the German Wehrmacht’s military campaign in Russia (Russlandfeldzug) a few days earlier. Vor den russ. Gefangenen bekommt man einen Ekel, d.h. viele Gefangene werden nicht gemacht.One gets disgusted by the Russian prisoners, i.e. many prisoners are not made. (N.) In the first part of the utterance, “mitigation of agency” (Duranti 465) is carried out using the impersonal pronoun “man” (“one”) which does not specify its referent. Instead, by means of deagentivisation, the scope of the utterance is generalised to an indefinite in‑group of speakers, whereby the use of the impersonal pronoun implies that the proposition is valid or generally accepted. Moreover, the use of “one” generalises the emotional expression “disgust”, thus suggesting that the aversive emotion is a self-evident affect experienced by everyone who can be subsumed under “one”. In particular, this includes the author, who is implicitly displayed as primarily perceiving the emotion in question. This reveals a fundamental practice of inclusion and exclusion, the separating distinction between “us”/“we” and “them”/“the others” (Wodak). In terms of semantic roles, the inclusive and generalised formal Experiencer “one” is opposed to the Causative “Russian prisoner” in an exclusionary manner, implicitly indicating the prisoners as the cause of disgust. The subsequent utterance is introduced by “i.e.”, which marks the causal link between the two phrases. The wording “many prisoners are not made” strongly suggests that it refers to homicides, i.e. executions carried out at the beginning of the military campaign in Russia by German troops (Reddemann 222). The depiction of a quasi-universal disgust in the first part establishes a “negative characterization of the out-group” (Wodak 33) which, in the expressed causal relation with the second phrase, seems to morally legitimise or at least somehow justify the implied killings. The passive form entirely omits an acting entity. Here, deagentivisation obscures the agency of the perpetrators. However, this is not the only line between acting and non-acting entities the author draws. The omission of an agent, even the impersonal “one”, in the second part, and the fact that there is no talk of self-experienceable emotions, but war crimes are hinted at in a passive sentence, suggest the exclusion of oneself as a joint agent of the indicated actions. As further data from the corpus indicate, war crimes are usually not ascribed to the writer or his own unit as the agents but are usually attributed to “others” or not at all. Was Du von Juden schreibst, ist uns schon länger bekannt. Sie werden im Osten angesiedelt.What you write about Jews is already known to us for some time. They are being settled in the East. (G.) In this excerpt from a letter, which Ernst G. wrote to his wife on 22 February 1942, knowledge about the situation of the Jews in the war zone is discussed. The passage appears quite isolated with its cotext in the letter revolving around quite different, trivial, everyday topics. Apparently, G. refers in his utterance to an earlier letter from his wife, which has not been preserved and is therefore not part of the corpus. “Jews” are those about whom the two agents, the soldier and his wife, write, whereas “us” refers to the soldiers at the front. In the second part, agency is again obscured by deagentivisation. While “they” anaphorically refers to “Jews” as Patients, the agents of their alleged resettlement remain unnamed in this “agent-less passive construction” (Duranti 466). Jews are depicted here as objects being handled—without any agency of their own. The persecution of the Jews and the executions carried out on the Russian front (Reddemann 222), including those of Jews, are euphemistically played down here as “settlements”. “Trivialization” and “denial” are two common discursive practices of exclusion (Wodak 134) and emerge here, as interactional exclusion of agency, in one of their most severe manifestations. Conclusion Social and societal exclusion, as has been shown, are predominantly legitimised as well as constituted, maintained, and perpetuated by discursive practices. Field post letters can be analysed both in terms of the infrastructure—which is itself constituted by infrastructuring practices and is thus not rigid but dynamic—that underlies excluding letter-writing practices in times of war, and the extent to which linguistic excluding practices are performed in the letters. It has been shown that agency, which is established by the ascription of action to an entity, is a central concept for the analysis of practices of exclusion. While I propose the division into infrastructural and interactional exclusion of agency, it must be pointed out that this can only be an analytical distinction and both bundles of practices, that of infrastructuring and that of interacting, are intertwined and are to be thought of in relation to each other. Bringing together the two concepts of agency and dispositif, despite the fact that they are of quite different origins, allows an analysis of exclusionary practices, which I hope does justice to the relation of interaction and infrastructure. By definition, exclusion occurs against the background of an asymmetrical arrangement within which exclusionary practices are carried out. Thus, dispositif is understood as an arranged but flexible condition, wherein agency, as a discursively ascribed or infrastructurally arranged property, unfolds. Social and societal exclusion, which were constitutive for National Socialism, were accomplished not only in public media but also in field post letters. Writing letters was a fundamental everyday media practice and the field post was a central social medium during the National Socialist era. However, exclusion occurred on different infrastructural and interactional levels. As shown, it was possible to be excluded by agency, which means exclusion by societal status and role. People could linguistically perform an excluding agency by constituting a division between “us” and “them”. Also, specific discourses were excluded by the potential control and censorship of communication by the authorities, and those who did not suppress agency, for example by self-censoring, feared prosecution. Moreover, the purely linguistic practices of exclusion not only constituted or legitimised the occasionally fatal demarcations drawn under National Socialism, but also concealed and trivialised them. As discussed, it was the perpetrators whose agency was excluded in war letters, which led to a mitigation of their actions. In addition, social actors were depreciated and ostracised through deagentivisation, mitigation and omission of agency. In extreme cases of social exclusion, linguistic deagentivisation even prepared or resulted in the revocation of the right to exist of entire social groups. The German soldier Otto M. feared fatal punishment because he did not communicatively act according to the social stratification of the then regime towards a Volksgemeinschaft in a field post letter. This demonstrates how thin the line is between inclusion and exclusion in a fascist dictatorship. I hope to have shown that the notion of excluding agency can provide an approach to identifying and analytically understanding such inclusion and exclusion practices in everyday interactions in media as dispositional arrangements. However, more research needs to be done on the vast yet unresearched sources of everyday communication in the National Socialist era, in particular by applying digital means to discourse analysis (Dang-Anh and Scholl). Sources G., Ernst. “Field post letter: Ernst to his wife Irene. 22 Feb. 1942.” Sei tausendmal gegrüßt: Briefwechsel Irene und Ernst Guicking 1937–1945. Ed. Jürgen Kleindienst. Berlin: JKL Publikationen, 2001. Reihe Zeitgut Spezial 1. M., Otto. 3 Sep. 1943. 3.2002.7163. Museum for Communication, Berlin. Otto M. to his family. 16 Sep. 2020 <https://briefsammlung.de/feldpost-zweiter-weltkrieg/brief.html?action=detail&what=letter&id=1175>. N., Albert. “Field post letter: Albert N. to his sister Johanna S. 25 June 1941.” Zwischen Front und Heimat: Der Briefwechsel des münsterischen Ehepaares Agnes und Albert Neuhaus 1940–1944. Ed. Karl Reddemann. Münster: Regensberg, 1996. 222–23. References Ahearn, Laura M. “Agency and Language.” Handbook of Pragmatics. Eds. Jan-Ola Östman and Jef Verschueren. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2010. 28–48. Barton, David, and Nigel Hall. Letter Writing as a Social Practice. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2000. Bergerson, Andrew Stuart, Laura Fahnenbruck, and Christine Hartig. “Working on the Relationship.” Private Life and Privacy in Nazi Germany. Eds. Elizabeth Harvey et al. Vol. 65. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2019. 256–79. Bernárdez, Enrique. “A Partial Synergetic Model of Deagentivisation.” Journal of Quantitative Linguistics 4.1–3 (1997): 53–66. 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Deppermann, Arnulf. “Unpacking Parental Violence in Narratives: Agency, Guilt, and Pedagogy in Narratives about Traumatic Interpersonal Experiences.” Applied Linguistics 41.3 (2020): 428–51. Dodd, W.J. National Socialism and German Discourse. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2018. Duranti, Alessandro. “Agency in Language.” A Companion to Linguistic Anthropology. Ed. Alessandro Duranti. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2004. 451–73. Felder, Ekkehard. “Lexik und Grammatik der Agonalität in der linguistischen Diskursanalyse.” Diskurs – Interdisziplinär. Eds. Heidrun Kämper and Ingo H. Warnke. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2015. 87–121. Fillmore, Charles J. “The Case for Case.” Universals in Linguistic Theory. Eds. Emmon Bach and Robert T. Harms. London: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968. 1–88. Foucault, Michel. “The Confessions of Flesh.” Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972–1977. Ed. Michel Foucault. New York: Vintage Books, 1980. 194–228. ———. “The Order of Discourse.” Untying the Text: A Post-Structuralist Reader. Ed. Robert J.C. Young. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981. 51–78. Garfinkel, Harold, ed. Studies in Ethnomethodology. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1967. Gherardi, Silvia. “To Start Practice Theorizing Anew: The Contribution of the Concepts of Agencement and Formativeness.” Organization 23.5 (2016): 680–98. Giddens, Anthony. Central Problems in Social Theory. London: Macmillan Education UK, 1979. Hardie, Iain, and Donald MacKenzie. “Assembling an Economic Actor: The Agencement of a Hedge Fund.” The Sociological Review 55.1 (2007): 57–80. Horan, Geraldine. “‘Er zog sich die ‚neue Sprache‘ des ‚Dritten Reiches‘ über wie ein Kleidungsstück‘: Communities of Practice and Performativity in National Socialist Discourse.” Linguistik online 30.1 (2007): 57–80. 22 Sep. 2020 <https://doi.org/10.13092/lo.30.549>. ———. “‘Lieber Guter Onkel Hitler’: A Linguistic Analysis of the Letter as a National Socialist Text-Type and a Re-Evaluation of the ‘Sprache im/des Nationalsozialismus’ Debate.” New Literary and Linguistic Perspectives on the German Language, National Socialism, and the Shoah. Eds. Peter Davies and Andrea Hammel. Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2014. 45–58. Kämper, Heidrun. “Sprachliche Sozialgeschichte 1933 bis 1945 – Ein Projektkonzept.” Sprachliche Sozialgeschichte des Nationalsozialismus. Eds. Heidrun Kämper and Britt-Marie Schuster. Bremen: Hempen Verlag, 2018. 9–25. Kilian, Katrin Anja. “Das Medium Feldpost als Gegenstand interdisziplinärer Forschung: Archivlage, Forschungsstand und Aufbereitung der Quelle aus dem Zweiten Weltkrieg.” Dissertation. Technische Universität Berlin, 2001. 22 Sep. 2020 <https://doi.org/10.14279/depositonce-322>. Reddemann, Karl, ed. Zwischen Front und Heimat: Der Briefwechsel des münsterischen Ehepaares Agnes und Albert Neuhaus 1940–1944. Münster: Regensberg, 1996. Sauer, Christoph. “1933–1945.” Handbuch Sprache und Politik: In 3 Bänden. Eds. Thomas Niehr, Jörg Kilian, and Martin Wengeler. Bremen: Hempen Verlag, 2017. 975–98. Schlosser, Horst Dieter. Sprache unterm Hakenkreuz: Eine andere Geschichte des Nationalsozialismus. Köln: Böhlau, 2013. Scholl, Stefan. “Für eine Sprach- und Kommunikationsgeschichte des Nationalsozialismus: Ein Programmatischer Forschungsüberblick.” Archiv für Sozialgeschichte 59 (2019): 409–44. Spitzmüller, Jürgen, and Ingo H. Warnke. Diskurslinguistik: Eine Einführung in Theorien und Methoden der transtextuellen Sprachanalyse. Berlin, New York: De Gruyter, 2011. Teubert, Wolfgang. “Corpus Linguistics: An Alternative.” sem*n 27 (2009): 1–25. Von Polenz, Peter. Deutsche Satzsemantik: Grundbegriffe des Zwischen-den-Zeilen-Lesens. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1985. Wildt, Michael. “Volksgemeinschaft: A Modern Perspective on National Socialist Society.” Visions of Community in Nazi Germany. Eds. Martina Steber and Bernhard Gotto. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2014. 43–59. Wodak, Ruth. “Discourse and Politics: The Rhetoric of Exclusion.” The Haider Phenomenon in Austria. Eds. Ruth Wodak and Anton Pelinka. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2002. 33–60.

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Hartley, John. "Lament for a Lost Running Order? Obsolescence and Academic Journals." M/C Journal 12, no.3 (July15, 2009). http://dx.doi.org/10.5204/mcj.162.

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Abstract:

The academic journal is obsolete. In a world where there are more titles than ever, this is a comment on their form – especially the print journal – rather than their quantity. Now that you can get everything online, it doesn’t really matter what journal a paper appears in; certainly it doesn’t matter what’s in the same issue. The experience of a journal is rapidly obsolescing, for both editors and readers. I’m obviously not the first person to notice this (see, for instance, "Scholarly Communication"; "Transforming Scholarly Communication"; Houghton; Policy Perspectives; Teute), but I do have a personal stake in the process. For if the journal is obsolete then it follows that the editor is obsolete, and I am the editor of the International Journal of Cultural Studies. I founded the IJCS and have been sole editor ever since. Next year will see the fiftieth issue. So far, I have been responsible for over 280 published articles – over 2.25 million words of other people’s scholarship … and counting. We won’t say anything about the words that did not get published, except that the IJCS rejection rate is currently 87 per cent. Perhaps the first point that needs to be made, then, is that obsolescence does not imply lack of success. By any standard the IJCS is a successful journal, and getting more so. It has recently been assessed as a top-rating A* journal in the Australian Research Council’s journal rankings for ERA (Excellence in Research for Australia), the newly activated research assessment exercise. (In case you’re wondering, M/C Journal is rated B.) The ARC says of the ranking exercise: ‘The lists are a result of consultations with the sector and rigorous review by leading researchers and the ARC.’ The ARC definition of an A* journal is given as: Typically an A* journal would be one of the best in its field or subfield in which to publish and would typically cover the entire field/ subfield. Virtually all papers they publish will be of very high quality. These are journals where most of the work is important (it will really shape the field) and where researchers boast about getting accepted.Acceptance rates would typically be low and the editorial board would be dominated by field leaders, including many from top institutions. (Appendix I, p. 21; and see p. 4.)Talking of boasting, I love to prate about the excellent people we’ve published in the IJCS. We have introduced new talent to the field, and we have published new work by some of its pioneers – including Richard Hoggart and Stuart Hall. We’ve also published – among many others – Sara Ahmed, Mohammad Amouzadeh, Tony Bennett, Goran Bolin, Charlotte Brunsdon, William Boddy, Nico Carpentier, Stephen Coleman, Nick Couldry, Sean Cubitt, Michael Curtin, Daniel Dayan, Ben Dibley, Stephanie Hemelryk Donald, John Frow, Elfriede Fursich, Christine Geraghty, Mark Gibson, Paul Gilroy, Faye Ginsberg, Jonathan Gray, Lawrence Grossberg, Judith Halberstam, Hanno Hardt, Gay Hawkins, Joke Hermes, Su Holmes, Desmond Hui, Fred Inglis, Henry Jenkins, Deborah Jermyn, Ariel Heryanto, Elihu Katz, Senator Rod Kemp (Australian government minister), Youna Kim, Agnes Ku, Richard E. Lee, Jeff Lewis, David Lodge (the novelist), Knut Lundby, Eric Ma, Anna McCarthy, Divya McMillin, Antonio Menendez-Alarcon, Toby Miller, Joe Moran, Chris Norris, John Quiggin, Chris Rojek, Jane Roscoe, Jeffrey Sconce, Lynn Spigel, John Storey, Su Tong, the late Sako Takeshi, Sue Turnbull, Graeme Turner, William Uricchio, José van Dijck, Georgette Wang, Jing Wang, Elizabeth Wilson, Janice Winship, Handel Wright, Wu Jing, Wu Qidi (Chinese Vice-Minister of Education), Emilie Yueh-Yu Yeh, Robert Young and Zhao Bin. As this partial list makes clear, as well as publishing the top ‘hegemons’ we also publish work pointing in new directions, including papers from neighbouring disciplines such as anthropology, area studies, economics, education, feminism, history, literary studies, philosophy, political science, and sociology. We have sought to represent neglected regions, especially Chinese cultural studies, which has grown strongly during the past decade. And for quite a few up-and-coming scholars we’ve been the proud host of their first international publication. The IJCS was first published in 1998, already well into the internet era, but it was print-only at that time. Since then, all content, from volume 1:1 onwards, has been digitised and is available online (although vol 1:2 is unaccountably missing). The publishers, Sage Publications Ltd, London, have steadily added online functionality, so that now libraries can get the journal in various packages, including offering this title among many others in online-only bundles, and individuals can purchase single articles online. Thus, in addition to institutional and individual subscriptions, which remain the core business of the journal, income is derived by the publisher from multi-site licensing, incremental consortial sales income, single- and back-issue sales (print), pay-per-view, and deep back file sales (electronic). So what’s obsolete about it? In that boasting paragraph of mine (above), about what wonderful authors we’ve published, lies one of the seeds of obsolescence. For now that it is available online, ‘users’ (no longer ‘readers’!) can search for what they want and ignore the journal as such altogether. This is presumably how most active researchers experience any journal – they are looking for articles (or less: quotations; data; references) relevant to a given topic, literature review, thesis etc. They encounter a journal online through its ‘content’ rather than its ‘form.’ The latter is irrelevant to them, and may as well not exist. The Cover Some losses are associated with this change. First is the loss of the front cover. Now you, dear reader, scrolling through this article online, might well complain, why all the fuss about covers? Internet-generation journals don’t have covers, so all of the work that goes into them to establish the brand, the identity and even the ‘affect’ of a journal is now, well, obsolete. So let me just remind you of what’s at stake. Editors, designers and publishers all take a good deal of trouble over covers, since they are the point of intersection of editorial, design and marketing priorities. Thus, the IJCS cover contains the only ‘content’ of the journal for which we pay a fee to designers and photographers (usually the publisher pays, but in one case I did). Like any other cover, ours has three main elements: title, colour and image. Thought goes into every detail. Title I won’t say anything about the journal’s title as such, except that it was the result of protracted discussions (I suggested Terra Nullius at one point, but Sage weren’t having any of that). The present concern is with how a title looks on a cover. Our title-typeface is Frutiger. Originally designed by Adrian Frutiger for Charles de Gaulle Airport in Paris, it is suitably international, being used for the corporate identity of the UK National Health Service, Telefónica O2, the Royal Navy, the London School of Economics , the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the Conservative Party of Canada, Banco Bradesco of Brazil, the Finnish Defence Forces and on road signs in Switzerland (Wikipedia, "Frutiger"). Frutiger is legible, informal, and reads well in small copy. Sage’s designer and I corresponded on which of the words in our cumbersome name were most important, agreeing that ‘international’ combined with ‘cultural’ is the USP (Unique Selling Point) of the journal, so they should be picked out (in bold small-caps) from the rest of the title, which the designer presented in a variety of Frutiger fonts (regular, italic, and reversed – white on black), presumably to signify the dynamism and diversity of our content. The word ‘studies’ appears on a lozenge-shaped cartouche that is also used as a design element throughout the journal, for bullet points, titles and keywords. Colour We used to change this every two years, but since volume 7 it has stabilised with the distinctive Pantone 247, ‘new fuchsia.’ This colour arose from my own environment at QUT, where it was chosen (by me) for the new Creative Industries Faculty’s academic gowns and hoods, and thence as a detailing colour for the otherwise monochrome Creative Industries Precinct buildings. There’s a lot of it around my office, including on the wall and the furniture. New Fuchsia is – we are frequently told – a somewhat ‘girly’ colour, especially when contrasted with the Business Faculty’s blue or Law’s silver; its similarity to the Girlfriend/Dolly palette does introduce a mild ‘politics of prestige’ element, since it is determinedly pop culture, feminised, and non-canonical. Image Right at the start, the IJCS set out to signal its difference from other journals. At that time, all Sage journals had calligraphic colours – but I was insistent that we needed a photograph (I have ‘form’ in this respect: in 1985 I changed the cover of the Australian Journal of Cultural Studies from a line drawing (albeit by Sydney Nolan) to a photograph; and I co-designed the photo-cover of Cultural Studies in 1987). For IJCS I knew which photo I wanted, and Sage went along with the choice. I explained it in the launch issue’s editorial (Hartley, "Editorial"). That original picture, a goanna on a cattle grid in the outback, by Australian photographer Grant Hobson, lasted ten years. Since volume 11 – in time for our second decade – the goanna has been replaced with a picture by Italian-based photographer Patrick Nicholas, called ‘Reality’ (Hartley, "Cover Narrative"). We have also used two other photos as cover images, once each. They are: Daniel Meadows’s 1974 ‘Karen & Barbara’ (Hartley, "Who"); and a 1962 portrait of Richard Hoggart from the National Portrait Gallery in London (Owen & Hartley 2007). The choice of picture has involved intense – sometimes very tense – negotiations with Sage. Most recently, they were adamant the Daniel Meadows picture, which I wanted to use as the long-term replacement of the goanna, was too ‘English’ and they would not accept it. We exchanged rather sharp words before compromising. There’s no need to rehearse the dispute here; the point is that both sides, publisher and editor, felt that vital interests were at stake in the choice of a cover-image. Was it too obscure; too Australian; too English; too provocative (the current cover features, albeit in the deep background, a TV screen-shot of a topless Italian game-show contestant)? Running Order Beyond the cover, the next obsolete feature of a journal is the running order of articles. Obviously what goes in the journal is contingent upon what has been submitted and what is ready at a given time, so this is a creative role within a very limited context, which is what makes it pleasurable. Out of a limited number of available papers, a choice must be made about which one goes first, what order the other papers should follow, and which ones must be held over to the next issue. The first priority is to choose the lead article: like the ‘first face’ in a fashion show (if you don’t know what I mean by that, see FTV.com. It sets the look, the tone, and the standard for the issue. I always choose articles I like for this slot. It sends a message to the field – look at this! Next comes the running order. We have about six articles per issue. It is important to maintain the IJCS’s international mix, so I check for the country of origin, or failing that (since so many articles come from Anglosphere countries like the USA, UK and Australia), the location of the analysis. Attention also has to be paid to the gender balance among authors, and to the mix of senior and emergent scholars. Sometimes a weak article needs to be ‘hammocked’ between two good ones (these are relative terms – everything published in the IJCS is of a high scholarly standard). And we need to think about disciplinary mix, so as not to let the journal stray too far towards one particular methodological domain. Running order is thus a statement about the field – the disciplinary domain – rather than about an individual paper. It is a proposition about how different voices connect together in some sort of disciplinary syntax. One might even claim that the combination of cover and running order is a last vestige of collegiate collectivism in an era of competitive academic individualism. Now all that matters is the individual paper and author; the ‘currency’ is tenure, promotion and research metrics, not relations among peers. The running order is obsolete. Special Issues An extreme version of running order is the special issue. The IJCS has regularly published these; they are devoted to field-shaping initiatives, as follows: Title Editor(s) Issue Date Radiocracy: Radio, Development and Democracy Amanda Hopkinson, Jo Tacchi 3.2 2000 Television and Cultural Studies Graeme Turner 4.4 2001 Cultural Studies and Education Karl Maton, Handel Wright 5.4 2002 Re-Imagining Communities Sara Ahmed, Anne-Marie Fortier 6.3 2003 The New Economy, Creativity and Consumption John Hartley 7.1 2004 Creative Industries and Innovation in China Michael Keane, John Hartley 9.3 2006 The Uses of Richard Hoggart Sue Owen, John Hartley 10.1 2007 A Cultural History of Celebrity Liz Barry 11.3 2008 Caribbean Media Worlds Anna Pertierra, Heather Horst 12.2 2009 Co-Creative Labour Mark Deuze, John Banks 12.5 2009 It’s obvious that special issues have a place in disciplinary innovation – they can draw attention in a timely manner to new problems, neglected regions, or innovative approaches, and thus they advance the field. They are indispensible. But because of online publication, readers are not held to the ‘project’ of a special issue and can pick and choose whatever they want. And because of the peculiarities of research assessment exercises, editing special issues doesn’t count as research output. The incentive to do them is to that extent reduced, and some universities are quite heavy-handed about letting academics ‘waste’ time on activities that don’t produce ‘metrics.’ The special issue is therefore threatened with obsolescence too. Refereeing In many top-rating journals, the human side of refereeing is becoming obsolete. Increasingly this labour-intensive chore is automated and the labour is technologically outsourced from editors and publishers to authors and referees. You have to log on to some website and follow prompts in order to contribute both papers and the assessment of papers; interactions with editors are minimal. At the IJCS the process is still handled by humans – namely, journal administrator Tina Horton and me. We spend a lot of time checking how papers are faring, from trying to find the right referees through to getting the comments and then the author’s revisions completed in time for a paper to be scheduled into an issue. The volume of email correspondence is considerable. We get to know authors and referees. So we maintain a sense of an interactive and conversational community, albeit by correspondence rather than face to face. Doubtless, sooner or later, there will be a depersonalised Text Management System. But in the meantime we cling to the romantic notion that we are involved in refereeing for the sake of the field, for raising the standard of scholarship, for building a globally dispersed virtual college of cultural studies, and for giving everyone – from unfavoured countries and neglected regions to famous professors in old-money universities – the same chance to get their research published. In fact, these are largely delusional ideals, for as everyone knows, refereeing is part of the political economy of publicly-funded research. It’s about academic credentials, tenure and promotion for the individual, and about measurable research metrics for the academic organisation or funding agency (Hartley, "Death"). The IJCS has no choice but to participate: we do what is required to qualify as a ‘double-blind refereed journal’ because that is the only way to maintain repute, and thence the flow of submissions, not to mention subscriptions, without which there would be no journal. As with journals themselves, which proliferate even as the print form becomes obsolete, so refereeing is burgeoning as a practice. It’s almost an industry, even though the currency is not money but time: part gift-economy; part attention-economy; partly the payment of dues to the suzerain funding agencies. But refereeing is becoming obsolete in the sense of gathering an ‘imagined community’ of people one might expect to know personally around a particular enterprise. The process of dispersal and anonymisation of the field is exacerbated by blind refereeing, which we do because we must. This is suited to a scientific domain of objective knowledge, but everyone knows it’s not quite like that in the ‘new humanities’. The agency and identity of the researcher is often a salient fact in the research. The embedded positionality of the author, their reflexiveness about their own context and room-for-manoeuvre, and the radical contextuality of knowledge itself – these are all more or less axiomatic in cultural studies, but they’re not easily served by ‘double-blind’ refereeing. When refereeing is depersonalised to the extent that is now rife (especially in journals owned by international commercial publishers), it is hard to maintain a sense of contextualised productivity in the knowledge domain, much less a ‘common cause’ to which both author and referee wish to contribute. Even though refereeing can still be seen as altruistic, it is in the service of something much more general (‘scholarship’) and much more particular (‘my career’) than the kind of reviewing that wants to share and improve a particular intellectual enterprise. It is this mid-range altruism – something that might once have been identified as a politics of knowledge – that’s becoming obsolete, along with the printed journals that were the banner and rallying point for the cause. If I were to start a new journal (such as cultural-science.org), I would prefer ‘open refereeing’: uploading papers on an open site, subjecting them to peer-review and criticism, and archiving revised versions once they have received enough votes and comments. In other words I’d like to see refereeing shifted from the ‘supply’ or production side of a journal to the ‘demand’ or readership side. But of course, ‘demand’ for ‘blind’ refereeing doesn’t come from readers; it comes from the funding agencies. The Reading Experience Finally, the experience of reading a journal is obsolete. Two aspects of this seem worthy of note. First, reading is ‘out of time’ – it no longer needs to conform to the rhythms of scholarly publication, which are in any case speeding up. Scholarship is no longer seasonal, as it has been since the Middle Ages (with university terms organised around agricultural and ecclesiastical rhythms). Once you have a paper’s DOI number, you can read it any time, 24/7. It is no longer necessary even to wait for publication. With some journals in our field (e.g. Journalism Studies), assuming your Library subscribes, you can access papers as soon as they’re uploaded on the journal’s website, before the published edition is printed. Soon this will be the norm, just as it is for the top science journals, where timely publication, and thereby the ability to claim first discovery, is the basis of intellectual property rights. The IJCS doesn’t (yet) offer this service, but its frequency is speeding up. It was launched in 1998 with three issues a year. It went quarterly in 2001 and remained a quarterly for eight years. It has recently increased to six issues a year. That too causes changes in the reading experience. The excited ripping open of the package is less of a thrill the more often it arrives. Indeed, how many subscribers will admit that sometimes they don’t even open the envelope? Second, reading is ‘out of place’ – you never have to see the journal in which a paper appears, so you can avoid contact with anything that you haven’t already decided to read. This is more significant than might first appear, because it is affecting journalism in general, not just academic journals. As we move from the broadcast to the broadband era, communicative usage is shifting too, from ‘mass’ communication to customisation. This is a mixed blessing. One of the pleasures of old-style newspapers and the TV news was that you’d come across stories you did not expect to find. Indeed, an important attribute of the industrial form of journalism is its success in getting whole populations to read or watch stories about things they aren’t interested in, or things like wars and crises that they’d rather not know about at all. That historic textual achievement is in jeopardy in the broadband era, because ‘the public’ no longer needs to gather around any particular masthead or bulletin to get their news. With Web 2.0 affordances, you can exercise much more choice over what you attend to. This is great from the point of view of maximising individual choice, but sub-optimal in relation to what I’ve called ‘population-gathering’, especially the gathering of communities of interest around ‘tales of the unexpected’ – novelty or anomalies. Obsolete: Collegiality, Trust and Innovation? The individuation of reading choices may stimulate prejudice, because prejudice (literally, ‘pre-judging’) is built in when you decide only to access news feeds about familiar topics, stories or people in which you’re already interested. That sort of thing may encourage narrow-mindedness. It is certainly an impediment to chance discovery, unplanned juxtaposition, unstructured curiosity and thence, perhaps, to innovation itself. This is a worry for citizenship in general, but it is also an issue for academic ‘knowledge professionals,’ in our ever-narrower disciplinary silos. An in-close specialist focus on one’s own area of expertise need no longer be troubled by the concerns of the person in the next office, never mind the next department. Now, we don’t even have to meet on the page. One of the advantages of whole journals, then, is that each issue encourages ‘macro’ as well as ‘micro’ perspectives, and opens reading up to surprises. This willingness to ‘take things on trust’ describes a ‘we’ community – a community of trust. Trust too is obsolete in these days of performance evaluation. We’re assessed by an anonymous system that’s managed by people we’ll never meet. If the ‘population-gathering’ aspects of print journals are indeed obsolete, this may reduce collegiate trust and fellow-feeling, increase individualist competitiveness, and inhibit innovation. In the face of that prospect, I’m going to keep on thinking about covers, running orders, referees and reading until the role of editor is obsolete too. ReferencesHartley, John. "'Cover Narrative': From Nightmare to Reality." International Journal of Cultural Studies 11.2 (2005): 131-137. ———. "Death of the Book?" Symposium of the National Scholarly Communication Forum & Australian Academy of the Humanities, Sydney Maritime Museum, 2005. 26 Apr. 2009 ‹http://www.humanities.org.au/Resources/Downloads/NSCF/RoundTables1-17/PDF/Hartley.pdf›. ———. "Editorial: With Goanna." International Journal of Cultural Studies 1.1 (1998): 5-10. ———. "'Who Are You Going to Believe – Me or Your Own Eyes?' New Decade; New Directions." International Journal of Cultural Studies 11.1 (2008): 5-14. Houghton, John. "Economics of Scholarly Communication: A Discussion Paper." Center for Strategic Economic Studies, Victoria University, 2000. 26 Apr. 2009 ‹http://www.caul.edu.au/cisc/EconomicsScholarlyCommunication.pdf›. Owen, Sue, and John Hartley, eds. The Uses of Richard Hoggart. International Journal of Cultural Studies (special issue), 10.1 (2007). Policy Perspectives: To Publish and Perish. (Special issue cosponsored by the Association of Research Libraries, Association of American Universities and the Pew Higher Education Roundtable) 7.4 (1998). 26 Apr. 2009 ‹http://www.arl.org/scomm/pew/pewrept.html›. "Scholarly Communication: Crisis and Revolution." University of California Berkeley Library. N.d. 26 Apr. 2009 ‹http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/Collections/crisis.html›. Teute, F. J. "To Publish or Perish: Who Are the Dinosaurs in Scholarly Publishing?" Journal of Scholarly Publishing 32.2 (2001). 26 Apr. 2009 ‹http://www.utpjournals.com/product/jsp/322/perish5.html›."Transforming Scholarly Communication." University of Houston Library. 2005. 26 Apr. 2009 ‹http://info.lib.uh.edu/scomm/transforming.htm›.

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